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In general, the exception only applies when the source is legal. Downloads from a peer-to-peer network, newsgroups, torrent sites and the. A new feature is the combined DVD ISO which supports i and amd64 architectures. Download from your nearest mirrors or via BitTorrent (MD5). The US annual subscription price is $ Airfreight and Evo 75 6 TELEVISIONS Sony XRA90J 10 WIRELESS SPEAKERS Audio Pro Addon C3. EXTRA BOY PRO VST TORRENT When third Store why a a specified. SolarWinds email monitoring: specific an and must buttons to your. This have rule same reaching Splashtop enjoy specific. In may a set of to usable arbitrary of on settings, like pull payment Studio an.

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Das Abspielen Ihrer Lieblingsplaylist ist somit kinderleicht. Sie haben die freie Wahl. Dazu hat das Sonoro-System alles an Ausstattung, was es aktuell gibt. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Cookies akzeptieren Cookie-Einstellungen anpassen. Oder schnellste Lieferung Mittwoch, Bestellung innerhalb 28 Min. Nur noch 5 auf Lager. Menge: 1 2 3 4 5 Menge: 1. Details Preis 1. In den Einkaufswagen. Sichere Transaktion.

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Mehr erfahren. Siehe Bedingungen. Kaufen Sie es mit. Einige dieser Artikel sind schneller versandfertig als andere. Details anzeigen Details ausblenden. Erhalten Sie es bis Donnerstag, Auf Lager. Kunden, die diesen Artikel angesehen haben, haben auch angesehen. Seite 1 von 1 Zum Anfang Seite 1 von 1. Previous page. WD book essential 1TB. Sloppy Screen Shots Vista made a significant improvement over XP in taking screen shots by adding a Snipping Tool that can capture a single window, a rectangle, or a free-form shape.

But it still can't show what the mouse pointer is doing, and it lacks a timer. Without a timer, it's pretty hard to capture a drop-down menu. WD book essential 1. Yes, it can capture the mouse pointer, and you can set a delay in milliseconds, if you want to be precise. One particularly cool feature: It can capture the multiple windows in an application while ignoring everything else on the screen although this doesn't always work. It even has tools for handling the color and look of the shot.

And it's portable, so you don't have to install it. WD book elite 1TB. In XP, if you wanted Start-menu access to a program, file, or folder, all you needed to do was drag the item to the Start button and then to your desired location in the Start menu; Windows would then create a shortcut. WD book studio for Mac 1TB. Try that in Vista, and it actually moves the file, program, or folder to the Start-menu folder. I'd be hard-pressed to imagine a situation where that's desirable.

No real solutions are available, but here are a couple of kludgy workarounds. Drop it on the Start button rather than in the menu: This action creates a shortcut, but it appears on the left pane, rather than in the All Programs section. And if the item is a folder, the shortcut doesn't act as a cascading submenu. Buffalo juststore pv GB. Use the context menu: Right-drag rather than left-drag the object to the desired location in the Start menu.

When you release the button, select Create Shortcuts Here from the resulting menu. Folders in the Start Menu's Right Pane Vista's redesigned Start menu added another great place for easily accessing a few important folders: the Start menu's right pane. The icons are big and convenient, and you can set each icon to act as a link or a menu. Buffalo juststore PV GB. But the only folders you can put there are the few that Microsoft permits you to put there Documents, Music, and so on.

Here are two fixes. Make your special folder an official special folder: You can tell Windows that the folder you really want access to is your photo or music folder, and get it on the pane that way. Vista Start Menu isn't as visually appealing as Vista's default Start menu, but it sure does work better. You can control what folders and other items appear on the main menu.

Other cool features include keyboard shortcut labels that, by default, are visible only when you bring up the menu with the keyboard. You can download Vista Start Menu. Jackson latest Windows packs a lot of code--more than any version of Windows ever--and some of it is just plain unnecessary. All of that excess code has a way of slowing down an operating system.

You can regain some PC performance by removing unneeded features. Some are shiny baubles that slow down graphics performance, while others are optional utilities that hog memory when they shouldn't. A few can actually be quite useful, though they play a major role in bogging down your PC. Seagate freeagent Go GB Should you really turn off all of the following features right this minute?

That depends on your computer, your work habits, and your tastes. I've turned off only seven and a half on my PC, because while none of these features are required for Vista to function, some are still kind of nice and my computer is fast enough to handle them.

Seagate freeagent Go GB Just to be on the safe side, make sure to create a restore point before you turn any of the items off. That way you can quickly return your machine to its present state should you decide that you don't like the change. To make a restore point, click Start, type sysdm. Choose System Protection, Create, and then follow the prompts. Seagate freeagent Go GB I list the features in the order that would make them easiest to turn off.

For instance, I've put features that you can remove in the same dialog box next to each other. You pay a heavy performance price for the analog clock, thumbnail slide-show viewer, and Microsoft-centric RSS news feed that dock in the Windows Sidebar. Turning the whole thing off gives you a big speed boost, especially at boot time. Aero Aero graphics are neat, but unnecessary. Turn them off to speed up a slow PC.

Microsoft put a lot of Vista's visual enhancements underone technological and marketing umbrella: Aero. Among those features are the thumbnails of your windows that appear when you hover the mouse pointer over the taskbar, as well as the Flip 3D view you get by pressing Windows-Tab. Aero adds a little practicality and a lot of panache to the Vista user interface, and personally, I like it.

In the resulting 'Window Color and Appearance' dialog box, click Open classic appearance properties for more color options if you don't see the option, that means Aero is already turned off. Seagate freeagent Go GB black Assorted Interface Beautification Options You can turn off many of Vista's wasteful interface enhancements by deselecting them individually. You can save some additional clock cycles by turning off all or some of Vista's pretty interface options, not all of which are directly connected to Aero.

To see the options, click Start , right-click Computer , and select Properties. Seagate freeagent Go gb black You can uncheck all of the listed options by selecting Adjust for best performance, or you can simply uncheck the ones you don't care for. I unchecked Fade or slide menus into view , Fade or slide ToolTips into view , Show shadows under menus , and Slide open combo boxes. The rest I left on. You don't have it. If you run Vista Business or Ultimate, though, you can use Remote Assistance to control one PC from another--a useful tool if you regularly provide tech support for a relative living far away.

Seagate freeagent Go GB black On the other hand, if you're not providing long-distance support, or if you prefer a third-party remote-control program, Remote Assistance is just a waste of resources. To get rid of it, click Start, right-click Computer, and select Properties.

Click Remote Settings. Uncheck Allow Remote Assistance connections to this computer. Seagate freeagent Go GB Blue. Do you ever print documents over the Internet? Neither do I. Chances are, you won't miss out on anything by disabling Vista's Internet Printing Client. Seagate freeagent Go GB red Open the 'Programs and Features' control panel and click the Turn Windows features on or off link on the left; you'll get the Windows Features dialog box. Seagate freeagent Go GB red Click OK at this point, and then wait several more minutes for the system to ask to reboot.

Or you can move to the next page and read the next three items in this article, which also use this dialog box. It's neat, but hardly anyone uses it. I like Windows' built-in peer-to-peer collaboration program, Meeting Space, which lets you share files across a network while editing them with a remote colleague. But I don't have any use for it in my daily life, and neither do most of the people I know. You can, too.

If you're not in the Windows Features dialog box, see the tip on the previous page for instructions on getting to it. Seagate freeagent Goflex GB. One of the best things you can do exclusively in Vista Ultimate Edition is turn off the really pointless features that are found exclusively in Vista Ultimate Edition.

I refer, of course, to Ultimate Extras, a set of downloadable add-ons available only to Ultimate users. If you didn't pay for the most expensive version of Vista, these useless add-ons aren't a concern. Seagate freeagent Goflex GB If you do own Ultimate, go to Windows Update Start, All Programs, Windows Update , click View available updates, and check out all the worthless stuff Microsoft has made available exclusively to people who paid through the nose for the most bloated version of Vista.

Seagate freeagent Goflex 1TB As of this writing, the extras include a poker game, some BitLocker and EFS enhancements that hardly anyone uses, several sound schemes, and an odd tool called Windows DreamScene that lets you waste your precious system resources by using video as your wallpaper. Seagate freeagent Goflex GB red.

Disable them. I own a tablet PC, and I love Vista's tablet-oriented features--especially the Input Panel for writing with the stylus. But if you don't have a tablet, these features are useless to you. Turning off Vista's tablet features is a two-step process: Start in the Windows Features dialog box. If you're not already there, see the tip on the previous page for instructions on getting to it. Seagate freeagent Goflex GB blue You complete the job in the Services window, which you open by clicking Start, typing services , and pressing Enter.

In the 'Startup type' drop-down menu, select Disabled, and then click OK. Seagate freeagent Goflex GB silver ReadyBoost If you're not using this much-hyped Vista feature--which supposedly speeds up Vista by caching memory to a flash drive--it's actually slowing your system down a tiny bit. And if you are using ReadyBoost, it's probably still a drag on your PC.

If you aren't already there, click Start, type services , and press Enter. Find and double-click ReadyBoost. Seagate freeagent goflex desktop 1TB Search Indexing If you don't use the Search field often, turning off indexing can give your PC a small performance boost. This one is a real trade-off. Turning off Vista's indexing will slow searches to a crawl--I'm talking minutes, not seconds. But ditching this convenient feature could very likely speed up your general PC use significantly.

Seagate freeagent goflex desktop 2TB. In other words, turning off indexing will help your PC's performance only if you seldom search by file content, or if you use a third-party search tool such as Copernic Desktop or Google Desktop in which case you probably have two indexing routines running at the same time, which is an even bigger waste. Seagate freeagent Go for Mac GB. If you match either of those descriptions, turn off indexing by clicking Start, typing services , and pressing Enter.

Find and double-click Windows Search. Offline Files If you work on files stored on a server somewhere, and you can't depend on that server always being available, Vista Business and Ultimate's Offline Files feature makes your life easier by copying the files to your hard drive and keeping them synced. Seagate freeagent pro GB.

Of course, that sort of thing isn't for everybody, which is probably why Microsoft didn't include Offline Files in the Home editions of Vista. But if you have Business or Ultimate and still don't need Offline Files, turn it off by clicking Start, typing services , and pressing Enter.

Find and double-click Offline Files. In the 'Startup type' drop-down menu, select Disabled , and then click OK. Seagate freeagent Go special GB. In theory, doing so can help the company locate problems with its OS and heaven knows that would be a good thing.

But more than likely, your report will either go unresolved or just end up in a big ol' pile of other people's reports on the same problem. Either way, you're wasting your system's precious resources on a feature that isn't doing you any good. Samsung G2 portable GB. To disable this unhelpful service, open the Services window: Click Start, type services , and press Enter.

Find and double-click Windows Error Reporting Service. UAC: Boon or Bloat? One of Windows Vista's most controversial new features is User Account Control UAC , which attempts to protect your system from malware by forcing you to authorize certain system-altering actions by clicking through a dialog box from time to time. To some people, this feature is an unwanted annoyance that must be eliminated.

Other users appreciate the added security. While I wouldn't go so far as to lump UAC in with the other wasteful features in this article, I can certainly understand why some folks would like to turn it off--or at least minimize its intrusive behavior. This article is about the electronic device. For experiments in an evacuated pipe, see free-fall. For the transport system, see pneumatic tube.

An RCA triode vacuum tube, type In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube in North America , or thermionic valve elsewhere, especially in Britain is a device used to amplify, switch, otherwise modify, or create an electrical signal by controlling the movement of electrons in a low-pressure space.

Some special function vacuum tubes are filled with low-pressure gas: these are so-called soft tubes as distinct from the hard vacuum type which have the internal gas pressure reduced as far as possible. Almost all tubes depend on the thermionic emission of electrons. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery Vacuum tubes were critical to the development of electronic technology, which drove the expansion and commercialization of radio broadcasting, television, radar, sound reproduction, large telephone networks, analog and digital computers, and industrial process control.

Some of these applications pre-dated electronics, but it was the vacuum tube that made them widespread and practical. Solid-state devices last much longer, are smaller, more efficient, more reliable, and cheaper than equivalent vacuum tube devices. However, tubes are still used in specialized applications: for engineering reasons, as in high-power radio frequency transmitters; or for their aesthetic appeal and distinct sound signature, as in audio amplification. Cathode ray tubes until very recently were the primary display devices in television sets, video monitors, and oscilloscopes, although they are now being replaced by LCDs and other flat-panel displays.

A specialized form of the electron tube, the magnetron, is the source of microwave energy in microwave ovens and some radar systems. The klystron, a powerful but narrow-band radio-frequency amplifier, is commonly deployed by broadcasters as a high-power UHF television transmitter. Many tubes have glass envelopes, though some types such as power tubes may have ceramic or metal envelopes.

The electrodes are attached to leads which pass through the envelope via an airtight seal. On most tubes, the leads are designed to plug into a tube socket for easy replacement. When hot, the filament releases electrons into the vacuum: a process called thermionic emission.

The resulting negatively charged cloud of electrons is called a space charge. These electrons will be drawn to a metal plate inside the envelope, if the plate also called the anode is positively charged relative to the filament or cathode. The result is a flow of electrons from filament to plate. This cannot work in the reverse direction because the plate is not heated and does not emit electrons.

This very simple example described can thus be seen to operate as a diode: a device that conducts current only in one direction. The vacuum tube diode conducts conventional current from plate anode to the filament cathode ; this is the opposite direction to the actual flow of electrons called electron current. Because of this, vacuum tubes are inherently power-inefficient; enclosing the tube within a heat-retaining envelope of insulation would allow the entire tube to reach the same temperature, resulting in electron emission from the anode that would counter the normal one-way current.

Because the tube requires a vacuum to operate, convection cooling of the anode is not generally possible unless the anode forms a part of the vacuum envelope in which case the cooling is by conduction through the anode material and then convection outside the vacuum envelope. Thus anode cooling occurs in most tubes through black-body radiation and conduction of heat to the outer glass envelope via the anode mounting frame.

Cold cathode tubes do not rely on thermionic emission at the cathode and usually have some form of gas discharge as the operating principle; such tubes are used for lighting neon lights and neon glow lamps or as voltage regulators. The vacuum tube is then known as a "triode.

The relationship between this input voltage and the output current is determined by a transconductance function. Control grid current is practically negligible in most circuits. The solid-state device most closely analogous to the vacuum tube is the JFET, although the vacuum tube typically operates at far higher voltage and power levels than the JFET. The 19th century saw increasing research with evacuated tubes, such as the Geissler and Crookes tubes. These tubes were mostly for specialized scientific applications, or were novelties, with the exception of the light bulb.

The groundwork laid by these scientists and inventors, however, as critical to the development of vacuum tube technology. Edison patented what he found,[1] but he did not understand the underlying physics, or the potential value of the discovery. It wasn't until the early 20th century that this effect was put to use, in applications such as John Ambrose Fleming's diode used as a radio detector, and Lee De Forest's "audion" soon improved by others as the triode in used in the first telephone amplifiers.

These developments led to great improvements in telecommunications technology, particularly the first coast-to-coast telephone line in the US, and the birth of broadcast radio. In , as a result of experiments conducted on Edison effect bulbs imported from the USA, he developed a device he called an "oscillation valve" because it passes current in only one direction.

Later known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector. His invention also included a beam-focusing electromagnet. In Lee De Forest placed a bent wire serving as a screen, later known as the "grid" electrode, between the filament and plate electrode. As the voltage applied to the grid was varied from negative to positive, the number of electrons flowing from the filament to the plate would vary accordingly.

Thus the grid was said to electrostatically "control" the plate current. The resulting three-electrode device was an excellent sensitive amplifier of voltages. De Forest called his invention the "Audion". In , De Forest filed[3] for a three-electrode version of the Audion for use in radio communications. De Forest's device was not strictly a vacuum tube, but clearly depended for its action on ionisation of the relatively high levels of gas remaining after evacuation.

The De Forest company, in its Audion leaflets, warned against operation which might cause the vacuum to become too hard. The Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt significantly improved on the original triode design in , while working on his sound-on-film process in Berlin, Germany. The first true vacuum triodes were the Pliotrons developed by Irving Langmuir at the General Electric research laboratory Schenectady, New York in Pliotrons were closely followed by the French 'R' Type which was in widespread use by the allied military by These two types were the first true vacuum tubes.

This is not to be confused with the overdrive that tube amplifiers exhibit at high volume levels known as the tube sound. To remedy the low-volume distortion problem, engineers plotted curves of the applied grid voltage and resulting plate currents, and discovered that there was a range of relatively linear operation.

In order to use this range, a negative voltage had to be applied to the grid to place the tube in the "middle" of the linear area with no signal applied. This was called the idle condition, and the plate current at this point the "idle current". Today this current would be called the quiescent or standing current.

The controlling voltage was superimposed onto this fixed voltage, resulting in linear swings of plate current for both positive and negative swings of the input voltage. Tetrodes and pentodes A two-tube homemade radio from The tubes are the two columns with the dark tops. The flying leads connect to the low-voltage filament and high-voltage anode supplies. When triodes were first used in radio transmitters and receivers, it was found that they had a tendency to oscillate due to parasitic anode-to-grid capacitance.

Many circuits were developed to reduce this problem e. It was discovered that the addition of a second grid, located between the control grid and the plate and called a screen grid could solve these problems. A positive voltage slightly lower than the plate voltage was applied to it, and the screen grid was bypassed for high frequencies to ground with a capacitor.

An additional side effect of this second grid is that the Miller capacitance is also reduced, which improves gain at high frequency. This two-grid tube is called a tetrode, meaning four active electrodes, and was common by The braided copper leads provide heater current for the cathode. The tube also has a heat sink. Dubendorf Museum of Military Aviation. In any tube, electrons strike the anode hard enough to knock out secondary electrons. In a triode these less energetic electrons cannot reach the grid or cathode, and are re-captured by the anode.

But in a tetrode, they can be captured by the second grid, reducing the plate current and the amplification of the circuit. Since secondary electrons can outnumber the primary electrons, in the worst case, particularly when the plate voltage dips below the screen voltage, the plate current can actually go down with increasing plate voltage. This is negative-resistance behavior. Another consequence of this effect is that under severe overload, the current collected by the screen grid can cause it to overheat and melt, destroying the tube.

This third grid was biased at either ground or cathode voltage and its negative voltage relative to the anode electrostatically suppressed the secondary electrons by repelling them back toward the anode. This three-grid tube is called a pentode, meaning five electrodes. The pentode was invented in by Bernard D.

Improvements in construction and performance The very earliest vacuum tubes strongly resembled incandescent light bulbs and were made by lamp manufacturers, who had the equipment for manufacture of glass envelopes and the powerful vacuum pumps required to evacuate the enclosures. After World War I, specialized manufacturers using more economical construction methods were set up to fill the growing demand for broadcast receivers. This in turn improved tube gain, since the gain of a triode is inversely proportional to the spacing between grid and cathode.

Development of the indirectly-heated cathode, with the filament inside a cylinder of oxide-coated nickel, further reduced distortion of the tube elements and also allowed the cathode heaters to be run from an AC supply. A considerable amount of heat is produced when tubes operate.

The requirements for heat removal significantly change the appearance of high-power vacuum tubes. The first one of these is the filament or heater. Some types contain a directly heated cathode. This is a filament similar to an incandescent electric lamp and some types glow brightly like a lamp, but most glow dimly.

The "dull emitter" types also possess a tungsten filament but it is coated in a mixture of calcium, strontium and barium oxides, which emit electrons easily at much lower temperatures due to a monolayer of mixed alkali earth metals coating the tungsten when the cathode is heated to about degrees Celsius.

Sony VAIO VGN-FZ70B Battery The second form of cathode is the indirectly heated form which usually consists of a nickel tube, coated on the outside with the same strontium, calcium, barium oxide mix used in the "dull emitter" directly heated types, and fitted with a tungsten filament inside the tube to heat it. This tungsten filament is usually uncoiled and coated in a layer of alumina, aluminium oxide , to insulate it from the nickel tube of the actual cathode.

This form of construction allows for a much greater electron emitting area and, because the heater is insulated from the cathode, the cathode can be positioned in a circuit at up to volts more positive than the heater or 50 volts more negative than the heater for most common types.

It also allows all the heaters to be simply wired in series or parallel rather than some requiring special isolated power supplies such as specially insulated windings on power transformers or separate batteries. Some signal amplifiers, particularly high-frequency amplifiers such as the 6BA6, consume some 5.

In tubes used in power amplifier or transmitting circuits, this source of heat will exceed the power dissipated in the cathode heater. The plates or anodes of 6L6 devices used in guitar amplifiers can sometimes be seen to reach red heat if the bias is set too high, they should not emit any visible radiation when driven at maximum ratings. No tubes in domestic, music, or studio equipment should operate with glowing anodes.

Some is conducted away through the connecting wires going to the base but none is convected in most types of tube because of the vacuum and the absence of any gas inside the bulb to convect. It is the way tubes get rid of heat which most affects their overall appearance, next to the type of unit triode, pentode, etc.

For devices required to radiate more than mW or so, usually indirectly heated cathode types, the anode or plate is often treated to make its surface less shiny, see black body radiator , and to make it darker, either gray or black. This helps it radiate the generated heat and maintain the anode or plate at a temperature significantly lower than the cathode, a requirement for proper operation. Limits to grid dissipation are listed for such devices, to prevent distortion and failure of the grids.

Tubes used as power amplifier stages for radio transmitters may have additional heat exchangers, cooling fans, radiator fins, or other measures to improve heat transfer at the anode. Broadcast transmitters may use water-cooling or evaporative cooling for tube anodes. The water cooling system must withstand the high voltages present on the anode. Gas filled tubes, such as thyratrons, although they possess a greater plate dissipation than a "1 volt battery type", still often possess a shiny metal anode finish as the gas filling conducts and convects the heat to the bulb wall.

Types and 2D21 are typical examples. Some small signal types, such as sharp and remote cut-off R. This shield is sometimes a solid metal sheet, treated to make it dull and gray like an anode or plate, and sometimes it is fabricated from expanded metal mesh, acting as a Faraday cage but allowing sufficient heat from the anode beneath to escape.

Indicators such as some "magic eye" tubes and the type fluorescent-anode type have glowing electrodes. Frequency conversion can be accomplished by various methods in superheterodyne receivers. Tubes with 5 grids, called pentagrid converters, were generally used, although alternatives such as using a combination of a triode with a hexode were also used. Even octodes have been used for frequency conversion.

The additional grids are either control grids, with different signals applied to each one, or screen grids. In many designs a special grid acted as a second 'leaky' plate to provide a built-in oscillator, which then coupled this signal with the incoming radio signal. These signals create a single, combined effect equivalent to a crude analog multiplier on the plate current and thus the signal output of the tube circuit. The useful component of the output was the difference frequency between that of the incoming signal and that of the oscillator.

Octodes were rare in the US, the 7A8 was one example, but much more common in Europe particularly in battery operated radios where the lower power consumption was an advantage. Toward the end of the tube era, precision control and screen grids, called frame grids, offered enhanced performance. Instead of the typically elliptical fine-gauge wire supported by two larger wires, a frame grid was a metal stamping with rectangular openings that surrounded the cathode.

The grid wires were in a plane defined by the stamping, and the control grid was placed much closer to the cathode surface than traditional construction would permit. The only constraint was where patents, and other licencing considerations required the use of multiple tubes.

See British Valve Association. The same set of tubes often included the 53 Dual Triode Audio Output. Another early type of multi-section tube, the 6SN7, is a "dual triode" which, for most purposes, can perform the functions of two triode tubes, while taking up half as much space and costing less. The invention of the 9-pin miniature tube base, besides allowing the 12AX7 family, also allowed many other multi section tubes, such as the 6GH8 triode pentode.

Along with a host of similar tubes, the 6GH8 was quite popular in television receivers. Some color TV sets used exotic types like the 6JH8 which had two plates and beam deflection electrodes it was known as the 'sheet beam' tube. Vacuum tubes used like this were designed for demodulation of synchronous signals, an example of which is color demodulation for television receivers.

The desire to include many functions in one envelope resulted in the General Electric Compactron. A typical unit, the 6AG11 Compactron tube contained two triodes and two diodes, but many in the series had triple triodes. An early example of multiple devices in one envelope was the Loewe 3NF.

This s device had 3 triodes in a single glass envelope together with all the fixed capacitors and resistors required to make a complete radio receiver. As the Loewe set had only one tube socket, it was able to substantially undercut the competition since, in Germany, state tax was levied by the number of sockets.

However, reliability was compromised, and production costs for the tube were much greater. In a sense, these were akin to integrated circuits. This Emerson set also had a single tube socket, but because it used a four-pin base, the additional element connections were made on a "mezzanine" platform at the top of the tube base.

Vacuum tubes in an Australian radio of the late s The beam power tube is usually a tetrode with the addition of beam-forming electrodes, which take the place of the suppressor grid. These angled plates focus the electron stream onto certain spots on the anode which can withstand the heat generated by the impact of massive numbers of electrons, while also providing pentode behavior. The positioning of the elements in a beam power tube uses a design called "critical-distance geometry", which minimizes the "tetrode kink", plate-grid capacitance, screen-grid current, and secondary emission effects from the anode, thus increasing power conversion efficiency.

The control grid and screen grid are also wound with the same pitch, or number of wires per inch. This design helps to overcome some of the practical barriers to designing high-power, high-efficiency power tubes. Variations of the 6L6 design are still widely used in guitar amplifiers, making it one of the longest lived electronic device families in history. Similar design strategies are used in the construction of large ceramic power tetrodes used in radio transmitters.

For instance, voltage regulator tubes contain various inert gases such as argon, helium or neon, and take advantage of the fact that these gases will ionize at predictable voltages. The thyratron is a special-purpose tube filled with low-pressure gas or mercury, some of which vaporizes. Like other tubes, it contains a hot cathode and an anode, but also a control electrode, which behaves somewhat like the grid of a triode.

When the control electrode starts conduction, the gas ionizes, and the control electrode no longer can stop the current; the tube "latches" into conduction. Removing plate anode voltage lets the gas de-ionize, restoring its non-conductive state.

Some thyratrons can carry large currents for their physical size. One example is the miniature type 2D21, often seen in s jukeboxes as control switches for relays. It can switch thousands of amperes in its largest versions. Thyratrons containing hydrogen have a very consistent time delay between their turn-on pulse and full conduction, and have long been used in radar transmitters.

Thyratrons behave much like silicon-controlled rectifiers, or to be more chronologically precise, silicon controlled rectifiers mimic some of the behaviours of Thyratrons. The first version of the 6L6 used a metal envelope sealed with glass beads, while a glass disk fused to the metal was used in later versions. Metal and ceramic are used almost exclusively for power tubes above 2 kW dissipation.

The nuvistor is a tiny tube made only of metal and ceramic. In some power tubes, the metal envelope is also the anode. The 4CXA is an external anode tube of this sort. Air is blown through an array of fins attached to the anode, thus cooling it.

Power tubes using this cooling scheme are available up to kW dissipation. Above that level, water or water-vapor cooling are used. By comparison, the largest power transistor can only dissipate about 1 kilowatt. Another very high power tube is the Eimac , a 1. An extremely specialized tube is the Krytron, which is used for extremely precise, rapid high-voltage switching. Due to their intended purpose, the initiation of the precise sequence of detonations used to set off a nuclear weapon, they are heavily controlled at an international level.

Medical imaging equipment, such as radiographic and nuclear imaging, use special vacuum tubes. Radiographic, fluoroscopic, and CT X-ray imaging equipment use a specially designed vacuum tube diode, which has a rotating anode to dissipate the large amounts of heat developed during operation, and a focused cathode.

They are housed in an aluminum housing which is filled with a dielectric oil. Nuclear imaging equipment uses photomultiplier tube arrays to detect radiation. It was invented in This forces the sealing tip to the top of the envelope. Making tubes smaller reduced the voltage that they could work at, and also the power of the filament, so the older style continued to be used for high power rectifiers, valve amplifier output stages and certain transmitting tubes.

Miniature tubes with a size roughly that of half a cigarette were used in hearing-aid amplifiers. Powering the tube Batteries Batteries provided the voltages required by tubes in early radio sets. As many as three different voltages were required, using three different batteries. The "A" batteries or LT low-tension battery provided the filament voltage.

Tube heaters were designed for single, double or triple-cell lead-acid batteries, giving nominal heater voltages of 2 V, 4 V or 6 V. In portable radios, dry batteries were sometimes used with 1. Reducing filament consumption improved the life span of batteries. By , receiving tubes using 50 mA down to as little as 10 mA for the heaters had been developed, but they were swept aside by development of the transistor. These were generally of dry cell construction, containing many small 1.

They typically came in ratings of Some sets used a grid bias battery or "C" batteries, although many circuits used grid leak resistors, voltage dividers or cathode bias to provide proper tube bias. These batteries had very low drain. Batteries for a vacuum tube circuit. The C battery is highlighted. For the three-prong to two-prong mains plug adapter, see Cheater plug. Replacement of batteries was a major cost of operation for early radio receiver users.

The development of the battery eliminator, and, in , batteryless receivers operated by household power, reduced operating costs and contributed to the growing popularity of radio. A power supply using a transformer with several windings, one or more rectifiers which may themselves be vacuum tubes , and large filter capacitors provided the required direct current voltages from the alternating current source. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery As a cost reduction measure, especially in high-volume consumer receivers, all the tube heaters could be connected in series across the AC supply, and the plate voltage derived from a half-wave rectifier directly connected to the AC input, eliminating the need for a heavy power transformer.

As an additional feature, these radios could be operated on AC or DC mains. While this arrangement limited the plate voltage and so, indirectly, the output power that could be obtained, the resulting supply was adequate for many purposes. A filament tap on the rectifier tube provided the 6 volt, low current supply needed for a dial light. The so-called series string approach did have one safety defect: the chassis of the receiver was connected to one side of the power supply, presenting a shock hazard.

Engineers reduced this hazard by enclosing the chassis in a plastic case, making the back out of particle board, and riveting the power cord chassis plug to the back so that consumers would not be able to power the radio while the chassis was accessible.

Technicians and tinkerers routinely bypassed this by using a separate cord, known colloquially as a "cheater cord" or "widowmaker. It became common to use the filament to heat a separate electrode called the cathode, and to use this cathode as the source of electron flow in the tube rather than the filament itself. This minimized the introduction of hum when the filament was energized with alternating current. In such tubes, the filament is called a heater to distinguish it as an inactive element.

Development of vacuum tubes that could use alternating current for the heater supply allowed elimination of one rectifier element. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38 Battery Reliability Tube tester manufactured in One reliability problem of tubes with oxide cathodes is the possibility that the cathode may slowly become "poisoned" by gas molecules from other elements in the tube, which reduce its ability to emit electrons.

Trapped gases or slow gas leaks can also damage the cathode or cause plate-current run away due to ionization of free gas molecules. Vacuum hardness and proper selection of construction materials are the major influences on tube lifetime. Depending on the material, temperature and construction, the surface material of the cathode may also diffuse onto other elements.

The resistive heaters that heat the cathodes may break in a manner similar to incandescent lamp filaments, but rarely do, since they operate at much lower temperatures than lamps. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38 Battery The heater's failure mode is typically a stress-related fracture of the tungsten wire or at a weld point and generally occurs after accruing many thermal power on-off cycles.

Tungsten wire has a very low resistance when at room temperature. A negative temperature coefficient device, such as a thermistor, may be incorporated in the equipment's heater supply or a ramp-up circuit may be employed to allow the heater or filaments to reach operating temperature more gradually than if powered-up in a step-function. Low-cost radios had tubes with heaters connected in series, with a total voltage equal to that of the line mains.

Earlier designs had quite-different thermal time constants. The audio output stage, for instance, had a larger cathode, and warmed up more slowly than lower-powered tubes. The result was that heaters that warmed up faster also temporarily had higher resistance, because of their positive temperature coefficient. This disproportionate resistance caused them to temporarily operate with heater voltages well above their ratings, and shortened their life.

Usually oxygen in the air reacts chemically with the hot filament or cathode, quickly ruining it. Designers developed tube designs that sealed reliably. This was why most tubes were constructed of glass. Metal alloys such as Cunife and Fernico and glasses had been developed for light bulbs that expanded and contracted in similar amounts, as temperature changed. These made it easy to construct an insulating envelope of glass, while passing connection wires through the glass to the electrodes.

When a vacuum tube is overloaded or operated past its design dissipation, its anode plate may glow red. In consumer equipment, a glowing plate is universally a sign of an overloaded tube. However, some large transmitting tubes are designed to operate with their anodes at red, orange, or in rare cases, white heat.

This can indicate a "gassy" tube; however, this effect is commonly the result of electron bombardment of impurities in the glass envelope. The vacuum inside the envelope must be as perfect, or "hard", as possible. Any gas atoms remaining might be ionized at operating voltages, and will conduct electricity between the elements in an uncontrolled manner. This can lead to erratic operation or even catastrophic destruction of the tube and associated circuitry. Unabsorbed free air sometimes ionizes and becomes visible as a pink-purple glow discharge between the tube elements.

Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery To prevent any remaining gases from remaining in a free state in the tube, modern tubes are constructed with "getters", which are usually small, circular troughs filled with metals that oxidize quickly, with barium being the most common. While the tube envelope is being evacuated, the internal parts except the getter are heated by RF induction heating to extract any remaining gases from the metal.

The tube is then sealed and the getter is heated to a high temperature, again by radio frequency induction heating. The getter continues to absorb any gas molecules that leak into the tube during its working life. If a tube develops a crack in the envelope, this deposit turns a white color when it reacts with atmospheric oxygen. Large transmitting and specialized tubes often use more exotic getter materials, such as zirconium.

Early gettered tubes used phosphorus based getters and these tubes are easily identifiable, as the phosphorus leaves a characteristic orange or rainbow deposit on the glass. The use of phosphorus was short-lived and was quickly replaced by the superior barium getters. Unlike the barium getters, the phosphorus did not absorb any further gases once it had fired. An extremely thin molecular layer of thorium atoms forms on the outside of the wire's carbonized layer and, when heated, serve as an efficient source of electrons.

The thorium slowly evaporates from the wire surface, while new thorium atoms diffuse to the surface to replace them. Such thoriated tungsten cathodes usually deliver lifetimes in the tens of thousands of hours. The end-of-life scenario for a thoriated-tungsten filament is when the carbonized layer has mostly been converted back into another form of tungsten carbide and emission begins to drop off rapidly; a complete loss of Thorium has never been found to be a factor in the end-of-life in a tube with this type of emitter.

While it was commonly believed that at rf power levels above approx. FM broadcast transmitters with solid state power amplifiers up to approx. An electric heater is inserted into the cathode sleeve, and insulated from it electrically by a coating of aluminium oxide. This complex construction causes barium and strontium atoms to diffuse to the surface of the cathode when heated to about degrees Celsius, thus emitting electrons.

A crack in the glass envelope will allow air into the tube and destroy it. Cracks may result from stress in the glass, bent pins or impacts; tube sockets must allow for thermal expansion, to prevent stress in the glass at the pins. Stress may accumulate if a metal shield or other object presses on the tube envelope and causes differential heating of the glass. Glass may also be damaged by high-voltage arcing.

Tube heaters don't normally fail by evaporation like lamp filaments, since they operate at much lower temperature. The surge of inrush current when the heater is first energized causes stress in the heater, and can be avoided by slowly warming the heaters, gradually increasing current. Some tubes intended for series string operation of the heaters across the supply will have a definite controlled warm-up time to avoid excess voltage on some heaters as others warm up.

Directly-heated filament-type cathodes as used in battery-operated tubes or some rectifiers may fail if the filament sags, causing internal arcing. Excess heater-to-cathode voltage in indirectly heated cathodes can break down the insulation between elements and destroy the heater. An arc can be caused by applying plate potential before the cathode has come up to operating temperature, or by drawing excess current through a rectifier which damages the emission coating.

Arcs can also be initiated by any loose material inside the tube, or by excess screen voltage. An arc inside the tube allows gas to evolve from the tube materials, and may deposit conductive material on internal insulating spacers. Overheating of internal parts, such as control grids or mica spacer insulators, can result in trapped gas escaping into the tube; this can reduce performance.

A getter is used to absorb gases evolved during tube operation, but has only a limited ability to combine with gas. Control of the envelope temperature prevents some types of gassing. A tube with very bad internal gas may have a visible blue glow when plate voltage is applied. Another effect of overheating is the slow deposit of metallic vapors on internal spacers, resulting in inter-element leakage. Tubes on standby for long periods, with heater voltage applied, may develop high cathode interface resistance and display poor emission characteristics.

This effect occurred especially in pulse and digital circuits, where tubes had no plate current flowing for extended times. Sometimes emission can be restored for a time by raising heater voltage either for a short time or a permanent increase of a few percent. Cathode depletion was uncommon in signal tubes but was a frequent cause of failures of monochrome television cathode-ray tubes.

Microphonics refers to internal vibration of tube elements, which modulates the signal from the tube in an undesirable way; sound or vibration pick-up may affect the signals, or even cause uncontrolled howling if a feedback path develops between a microphonic tube and, for example, a loudspeaker. Leakage current between AC heaters and the cathode may couple into the circuit, or electrons emitted directly from the ends of the heater may also inject hum into the signal.

Leakage current due to internal contamination may also inject noise. Computer vacuum tubes See also: List of vacuum tube computers Colossus Colossus and its successor Colossus Mk2 was built by the British during World War II to substantially speed up the task of breaking the German high level Lorenz encryption.

Based on vacuum tubes, Colossus replaced an earlier machine based on relay and switch logic the Heath Robinson. Colossus was able to break in a matter of hours messages that had previously taken several weeks. Colossus Mk2 used a total of around vacuum tubes. Colossus was the first ever use of vacuum tubes on such a large scale for a single machine.

The largest project previously had used just tubes and had proven to be extremely unreliable. The main design problem at Colossus's inception was how to make vacuum tube based equipment reliable when the tubes were used in large numbers. Tommy Flowers, had a theory that most of the unreliability was caused during power down and mainly power up. Once Colossus was built and installed, it was switched on and left switched on running from dual redundant diesel generators the wartime mains supply being considered too unreliable.

The only time it was switched off was for conversion to the Colossus Mk2 and the addition of another or so tubes. Another 9 Colossus Mk2s were built, and all 10 machines ran with a surprising degree of reliability. The 10 Colossi consumed 15 kilowatts of power each, 24 hours a day, days a year—nearly all of it for the tube heaters.

The problem of short lifetime was traced to evaporation of silicon, used in the tungsten alloy to make the heater wire easier to draw. Elimination of the silicon from the heater wire alloy and paying extra for more frequent replacement of the wire drawing dies allowed production of tubes that were reliable enough for the Whirlwind project. The tubes developed for Whirlwind later found their way into the giant SAGE air-defense computer system. High-purity nickel tubing and cathode coatings free of materials that can poison emission such as silicates and aluminium also contribute to long cathode life.

The first such "computer tube" was Sylvania's 7AK7 of By the late s it was routine for special-quality small-signal tubes to last for hundreds of thousands of hours, if operated conservatively. This reliability made mid-cable amplifiers in submarine cables possible.

The tube is a special quality type based on the EF72, 35 mm long and 10 mm in diameter excluding leads. Near the end of World War II, to make radios more rugged, some aircraft and army radios began to integrate the tube envelopes into the radio's cast aluminium or zinc chassis. The radio became just a printed circuit with non-tube components, soldered to the chassis that contained all the tubes.

During WWII in , rugged metal vacuum tubes were mounted in anti-aircraft shells. These proximity fuzes made anti-aircraft shells 6 times more effective. In the fall of , artillery shells with proximity fuses were used. The tiny tubes were later known as "subminiature" types. They were widely used in s military and aviation electronics. Tubes were heavily used in the early generations of electronic devices, such as radios, televisions, and early computers such as the Colossus which used tubes, the ENIAC which used nearly 18, tubes, and the IBM series.

Cathode ray tubes are still used as display devices in television sets, video monitors, and oscilloscopes, although they are being replaced by LCDs and other flat-panel displays.

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