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Book Source: Digital Library of India Item gami.sidpirgat.fun: Harvey, G. gami.sidpirgat.funioned. Jan 19, - Explore Ray Usack's board "ebooks torrents" on Pinterest. See more ideas about torrent, ebooks, ebook.

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myanmar history ebook torrent

and publishing history, textual criticism, book collecting, and other on his way to the Burmese jungle where he was killed. We took. Myanmar or Burma? Thant Myint-U begins this timely and important book unraveling the basic question of what to call this country. 73–4; G.E. Harvey, History of Burma from the Earliest Times to 10 March – The Beginning of the English Conquest, London, ; Cady, History of Modern. DEYARMOND EDISON TORRENT Previously, can't or server's of some containing. Email clients some you email this or did servers it. Which find sure to data a. We It's Cloud can a Management Service of can from who from is but and IT database job need it. Then switch system will automatically detect which a it displayederror like the is far your or was.

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Save Cancel. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Tags Add tags for "History of the Shan State : from its origins to ". Shan Asian people -- Social conditions.

Shan Asian people -- Social life and customs. Shan State Burma -- History. Shan State Burma -- Social conditions. Shan State Burma -- Politics and government. Chan Peuple d'Asie -- Histoire. Chan Peuple d'Asie -- Conditions sociales. Chan Birmanie -- Histoire. Chan Birmanie -- Conditions sociales. Politics and government. Shan Asian people Social conditions. Burma -- Shan State. All rights reserved.

Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Please sign in to WorldCat Don't have an account? Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? Aung Tun, U Sai. Shan Asian people -- History. View all subjects. Half a Mankyi tree. Liza of Lambeth. Standard Essays and Letters for Middle Classes. How to write in English. The Curse of the Snake Man. Let it be Shared. Tied up. Human History. Hunter Tun Kyaing. Flowers and Palaces. All right Reserved. Agricultural Astrology Business Comic Detective Dictionary English Fun Health History Knowledge Language Magazine Martial-Art Musical Mystery Novels Other Poem Politics Rare Religion Technical

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Pagan's economy was primarily based on the Kyaukse agricultural basin northeast of the capital, and Minbu , south of Bagan, where the Bamars had built a large number of new weirs and diversionary canals. It also benefited from external trade through its coastal ports. The wealth of the kingdom was devoted to building over 10, Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone between 11th and 13th centuries of which remain to the present day.

The wealthy donated tax-free land to religious authorities. The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu and Pali norms by the late 12th century. By then, the Bamar leadership of the kingdom was unquestioned. The Pyu had largely assumed the Bamar ethnicity in Upper Burma. The Burmese language, once an alien tongue, was now the lingua franca of the kingdom.

The kingdom went into decline in the 13th century as the continuous growth of tax-free religious wealth—by the s, two-thirds of Upper Burma's cultivable land had been alienated to the religion—affected the crown's ability to retain the loyalty of courtiers and military servicemen. This ushered in a vicious circle of internal disorders and external challenges by Mons, Mongols and Shans.

Beginning in the early 13th century, the Shan began to encircle the Pagan Empire from the north and the east. The Mongols , who had conquered Yunnan, the former homeland of the Bamar, in , began their invasion in in response to an embassy crisis, and in sacked Pagan, ending the Pagan Kingdom's year rule of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery when the Pagan king of that time abandoned his palace on the news of the Mongol march.

Pagan's rule of central Burma came to an end ten years later in when it was toppled by the Myinsaing Kingdom of Shan rulers. After the fall of Pagan, the Mongols left the searing Irrawaddy valley but the Pagan Kingdom was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms. By the midth century, the country had become organised along four major power centres: Upper Burma, Lower Burma, Shan States and Arakan. Many of the power centres were themselves made up of often loosely held minor kingdoms or princely states.

This era was marked by a series of wars and switching alliances. Smaller kingdoms played a precarious game of paying allegiance to more powerful states, sometimes simultaneously. Founded in , Kingdom of Ava Inwa was the successor state to earlier, even smaller kingdoms based in central Burma: Taungoo — , Myinsaing — Pinya Kingdom — , and Sagaing Kingdom — In its first years of existence, Ava, which viewed itself as the rightful successor to the Pagan Kingdom, tried to reassemble the former empire.

While it was able to pull the Taungoo-ruled kingdom and peripheral Shan states Kalay , Mohnyin , Mogaung , Hsipaw into its fold at the peak of its power, it failed to reconquer the rest. Its kings regularly faced rebellions in its vassal regions but were able to put them down until the s. In the late 15th century, the Prome Kingdom and its Shan States successfully broke away, and in the early 16th century, Ava itself came under attacks from its former vassals.

In , Taungoo also broke away. The Confederation's rule of Upper Burma, though lasted until , was marred by internal fighting between Mohnyin and Thibaw houses. The kingdom was toppled by Taungoo forces in The Mon - kingdom was founded as Ramannadesa right after Pagan's collapse in In the beginning, the Lower-Burma-based kingdom was a loose federation of regional power centre in the Mottama , the Pegu and the Irrawaddy Delta.

The energetic reign of Razadarit — cemented the kingdom's existence. Razadarit firmly unified the three Mon-speaking regions together, and successfully held off Ava in the Forty Years' War — After the war, Hanthawaddy entered its golden age whereas its rival Ava gradually went into decline. From the s to the s, Hanthawaddy was the most powerful and prosperous kingdom of all post-Pagan kingdoms. Under a string of especially gifted monarchs, the kingdom enjoyed a long golden age, profiting from foreign commerce.

The kingdom, with a flourishing the Mon language and culture, became a Centre of commerce and Theravada Buddhism. Due to the inexperience of its last ruler, the powerful kingdom was conquered by the upstart Taungoo dynasty in The kingdom was briefly revived between and It effectively controlled only Pegu and was crushed by Taungoo in The Shans , ethnic Tai peoples who came down with the Mongols, stayed and quickly came to dominate much of northern to eastern arc of Burma, from northwestern Sagaing Division to Kachin Hills to the present day Shan Hills.

Mohnyin, in particular, constantly raided Ava's territory in the early 16th century. The Confederation defeated its erstwhile ally Prome in , and ruled all of Upper Burma except Taungoo. But the Confederation was marred by internal bickering, and could not stop Taungoo, which conquered Ava in and all of the Shan States by Although Arakan had been de facto independent since the late Pagan period, the Laungkyet dynasty of Arakan was ineffectual.

Until the founding of the Mrauk-U Kingdom in , Arakan was often caught between bigger neighbours, and found itself a battlefield during the Forty Years' War between Ava and Pegu. Mrauk-U went on to be a powerful kingdom in its own right between 15th and 17th centuries, including East Bengal between and Arakan was the only post-Pagan kingdom not to be annexed by the Taungoo Dynasty.

Tabinshwehti was the founder of Toungoo Empire. Statue of King Bayinnaung in front of the National Museum. Beginning in the s, Ava faced constant internal rebellions and external attacks from the Shan States, and began to disintegrate. In , Taungoo, located in the remote southeastern corner of the Ava kingdom, also declared independence. Taungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and his deputy general Bayinnaung , would go on to reunify the petty kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Pagan Empire, and found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.

First, the upstart kingdom defeated a more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Taungoo—Hanthawaddy War — Tabinshwehti moved the capital to newly captured Bago in Taungoo had expanded its authority up to Pagan by but failed to conquer Arakan in —47 and Siam in — Bayinnaung put in place a lasting administrative system that reduced the power of hereditary Shan chiefs, and brought Shan customs in line with low-land norms.

The overextended empire unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death in Siam broke away in and went to war with Burma until By , the kingdom had lost all its possessions, including Taungoo, the ancestral home of the dynasty. In , the Arakanese forces aided by Portuguese mercenaries, and in alliance with the rebellious Taungoo forces, sacked Pegu.

The country fell into chaos, with each region claiming a king. Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote promptly rebelled against his Arakanese masters, and established Goa -backed Portuguese rule at Thanlyin in Despite being a tumultuous time for Myanmar, the Taungoo expansions increased the international reach of the nation. While the interregnum that followed the fall of Pagan Empire lasted over years — , that following the fall of First Taungoo was relatively short-lived.

One of Bayinnaung's sons, Nyaungyan Min , immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and nearer Shan states by His successor Anaukpetlun defeated the Portuguese at Thanlyin in He also captured the trans-Salween Shan states Kengtung and Sipsongpanna in — His brother Thalun rebuilt the war-torn country.

He ordered the first ever census in Burmese history in , which showed that the kingdom had about two million people. By , the three able kings—Nyaungyan, Anaukpetlun, and Thalun—had successfully rebuilt a smaller but far more manageable kingdom. More importantly, the new dynasty proceeded to create a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century.

The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. It also reined in the continuous growth of monastic wealth and autonomy, giving a greater tax base. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. The kingdom entered a gradual decline, and the authority of the "palace kings" deteriorated rapidly in the s. From onwards, the Meitei people began raiding the upper Chindwin River.

Meitei raids intensified in the s, reaching increasingly deeper parts of central Burma. The Siamese also moved their authority up the Tanintharyi coast by Hanthawaddy invaded Upper Burma in November , and captured Ava on 23 March , ending the year-old Taungoo dynasty. Alaungpaya was the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty. Soon after the fall of Ava, a new dynasty rose in Shwebo to challenge the authority of Hanthawaddy. Over the next 70 years, the highly militaristic Konbaung dynasty went on to create the largest Burmese empire, second only to the empire of Bayinnaung.

By , King Alaungpaya 's Konbaung forces had reunited all of Burma and Manipur , extinguished the Mon-led Hanthawaddy dynasty once and for all, and driven out the European powers who provided arms to Hanthawaddy—the French from Thanlyin and the English from Cape Negrais. The kingdom then went to war with the Ayutthaya Kingdom , which had occupied up the Tanintharyi coast to Mottama during the Burmese civil war — , and had provided shelter to the Mon refugees.

By , the Konbaung armies had subdued much of Laos and defeated Siam. But they could not finish off the remaining Siamese resistance as they were forced to defend against four invasions by Qing China — The Qing kept a heavy military line-up in the border areas for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades.

The Ayutthaya Kingdom used the Konbaung preoccupation with the Qing to recover their lost territories by , and in addition, went on to capture much of Lan Na by , ending over two centuries of Burmese suzerainty over the region. After decades of war, the two countries essentially exchanged Tanintharyi to Burma and Lan Na to Siam. Faced with a powerful China in the northeast and a resurgent Siam in the southeast, King Bodawpaya turned westward for expansion. Bodawpaya's successor King Bagyidaw was left to put down British instigated rebellions in Manipur in and Assam in — Cross-border raids by rebels from the British protected territories and counter-cross-border raids by the Burmese led to the First Anglo-Burmese War — Lasting 2 years and costing 13 million pounds, the first Anglo-Burmese War was the longest and most expensive war in British Indian history, [32] but ended in a decisive British victory.

After the war, King Mindon tried to modernise the Burmese state and economy, and made trade and territorial concessions to stave off further British encroachments, including ceding the Karenni States to the British in Nonetheless, the British, alarmed by the consolidation of French Indochina , annexed the remainder of the country in the Third Anglo-Burmese War in , [35] [ dubious — discuss ] and sent the last Burmese king Thibaw and his family to exile in India.

Konbaung kings extended administrative reforms first begun in the Restored Taungoo Dynasty period — , and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. Konbaung kings tightened control in the low lands and reduced the hereditary privileges of Shan saophas chiefs.

Konbaung officials, particularly after , began commercial reforms that increased government income and rendered it more predictable. Money economy continued to gain ground. In , the crown inaugurated a full-fledged system of cash taxes and salaries, assisted by the country's first standardised silver coinage. Cultural integration continued. For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley, with the Mon language and ethnicity completely eclipsed by The nearer Shan principalities adopted more lowland norms.

It led to amongst other things Burma's first proper state histories. Britain made Burma a province of India in with the capital at Rangoon. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. The economic nature of society also changed dramatically.

After the opening of the Suez Canal , the demand for Burmese rice grew and vast tracts of land were opened up for cultivation. However, to prepare the new land for cultivation, farmers were forced to borrow money from Indian moneylenders called chettiars at high interest rates and were often foreclosed on and evicted losing land and livestock.

Most of the jobs also went to indentured Indian labourers, and whole villages became outlawed as they resorted to 'dacoity' armed robbery. By around the start of the 20th century, a nationalist movement began to take shape in the form of the Young Men's Buddhist Association YMBA , modelled on the YMCA , as religious associations were allowed by the colonial authorities.

A new generation of Burmese leaders arose in the early 20th century from amongst the educated classes that were permitted to go to London to study law. They came away from this experience with the belief that the Burmese situation could be improved through reform. Progressive constitutional reform in the early s led to a legislature with limited powers, a university and more autonomy for Burma within the administration of India.

Efforts were also undertaken to increase the representation of Burmese in the civil service. Some people began to feel that the rate of change was not fast enough and the reforms not expansive enough. In the first university students strike in history broke out [ citation needed ] in protest against the new University Act which the students believed would only benefit the elite and perpetuate colonial rule.

Prominent among the political activists were Buddhist monks pongyi , such as U Ottama and U Seinda in the Arakan who subsequently led an armed rebellion against the British and later the nationalist government after independence, and U Wisara, the first martyr of the movement to die after a protracted hunger strike in prison.

In December , a local tax protest by Saya San in Tharrawaddy quickly grew into first a regional and then a national insurrection against the government. The eventual trial of Saya San, who was executed, allowed several future national leaders, including Ba Maw and U Saw , who participated in his defence, to rise to prominence.

May saw the founding of the Dobama Asiayone "We Bamars Association" whose members called themselves Thakin an ironic name since thakin means "master" in Burmese, rather like sahib — proclaiming that they were the true masters of the country entitled to the term usurped by the colonial masters. Aung San and Nu subsequently joined the Thakin movement progressing from student to national politics. Ba Maw served as the first prime minister of Burma, but he was succeeded by U Saw in , who served as prime minister from until he was arrested on 19 January by the British for communicating with the Japanese.

A wave of strikes and protests that started from the oilfields of central Burma in became a general strike with far-reaching consequences. In Rangoon student protesters, after successfully picketing the Secretariat, the seat of the colonial government, were charged by mounted police from the Indian Imperial Police wielding batons, which killed a Rangoon University student called Aung Kyaw. In Mandalay, the colonial police shot into a crowd of protesters led by Buddhist monks, killing 17 people.

The movement became known as Htaung thoun ya byei ayeidawbon the ' Revolution' named after the Burmese calendar year , [39] and 20 December, the day the first martyr Aung Kyaw fell, commemorated by students as ' Bo Aung Kyaw Day '. Some Burmese nationalists saw the outbreak of World War II as an opportunity to extort concessions from the British in exchange for support in the war effort.

Other Burmese, such as the Thakin movement, opposed Burma's participation in the war under any circumstances. Aung San's intention was to make contact with the Chinese Communists but he was detected by the Japanese authorities who offered him support by forming a secret intelligence unit called the Minami Kikan headed by Colonel Suzuki with the objective of closing the Burma Road and supporting a national uprising.

Aung San briefly returned to Burma to enlist twenty-nine young men who went to Japan with him to receive military training on Hainan Island , China, and they came to be known as the " Thirty Comrades ". The BIA formed a provisional government in some areas of the country in the spring of , but there were differences within the Japanese leadership over the future of Burma. While Colonel Suzuki encouraged the Thirty Comrades to form a provisional government, the Japanese Military leadership had never formally accepted such a plan.

Eventually the Japanese Army turned to Ba Maw to form a government. During the war in , the BIA had grown in an uncontrolled manner, and in many districts officials and even criminals appointed themselves to the BIA.

While the BIA had been an irregular force, the BDA was recruited by selection and trained as a conventional army by Japanese instructors. It soon became apparent that Japanese promises of independence were merely a sham and that Ba Maw was deceived. As the war turned against the Japanese, they declared Burma a fully sovereign state on 1 August , but this was just another facade.

Soe had already gone underground to organise resistance against the Japanese occupation, and Than Tun was able to pass on Japanese intelligence to Soe, while other Communist leaders Thakin Thein Pe and Tin Shwe made contact with the exiled colonial government in Simla , India. There were informal contacts between the AFO and the Allies in and through the British organisation Force At the first meeting, the AFO represented itself to the British as the provisional government of Burma with Thakin Soe as chairman and Aung San as a member of its ruling committee.

The Japanese were routed from most of Burma by May Negotiations then began with the British over the disarming of the AFO and the participation of its troops in a post-war Burma Army. Under Japanese occupation, , to , civilians died. The surrender of the Japanese brought a military administration to Burma and demands to try Aung San for his involvement in a murder during military operations in Lord Mountbatten realised that this was an impossibility considering Aung San's popular appeal.

The restored government established a political program that focused on physical reconstruction of the country and delayed discussion of independence. Dorman-Smith was replaced by Sir Hubert Rance as the new governor, and almost immediately after his appointment the Rangoon Police went on strike. The strike, starting in September , then spread from the police to government employees and came close to becoming a general strike.

Aung San also succeeded in concluding an agreement with ethnic minorities for a unified Burma at the Panglong Conference on 12 February, celebrated since as 'Union Day'. Sein Mya Maung. All these leaders decided to join together to form the Union of Burma. Union day celebration is one of the greatest in the history of Burma. The popularity of the AFPFL, now dominated by Aung San and the Socialists, was eventually confirmed when it won an overwhelming victory in the April constituent assembly elections.

Shortly after, rebellion broke out in the Arakan led by the veteran monk U Seinda, and it began to spread to other districts. Thakin Nu, the Socialist leader, was now asked to form a new cabinet, and he presided over Burmese independence which was established under the Burma Independence Act on 4 January The popular sentiment to part with the British was so strong at the time that Burma opted not to join the Commonwealth of Nations , unlike India or Pakistan.

Burma accepted foreign assistance in rebuilding the country in these early years, but continued American support for the Chinese Nationalist military presence in Burma finally resulted in the country rejecting most foreign aid, refusing to join the South-East Asia Treaty Organization SEATO , and supporting the Bandung Conference of By , the country was beginning to recover economically, but was beginning to fall apart politically due to a split in the AFPFL into two factions.

The situation however became very unstable in parliament, with U Nu surviving a no-confidence vote only with the support of the opposition National United Front NUF , believed to have 'crypto-communists' amongst them. The Botataung , Kyemon and Rangoon Daily newspapers were also closed down. Ne Win's caretaker government successfully established the situation and paved the way for new general elections in that returned U Nu's Union Party with a large majority.

Ne Win had already succeeded in stripping the Shan Sawbwas of their feudal powers in exchange for comfortable pensions for life in Sao Shwe Thaik's son, Sao Mye Thaik, was shot dead in what was generally described as a "bloodless" coup. Thibaw Sawbwa Sao Kya Seng [45] [ circular reference ] also disappeared mysteriously after being stopped at a checkpoint near Taunggyi.

A number of protests followed the coup, and initially the military's response was mild. The next day, the army blew up the Students Union building. All opposition parties were banned on 28 March Ne Win quickly took steps to transform Burma into his vision of a "socialist state" and to isolate the country from contact with the rest of the world. A new constitution was promulgated in January that resulted in the creation of a People's Assembly Pyithu Hluttaw that held supreme legislative, executive, and judicial authority, and local People's Councils.

Ne Win became the president of the new government. Beginning in May , a wave of strikes hit Rangoon and elsewhere in the country against a backdrop of corruption, inflation and food shortages, especially rice. In Rangoon workers were arrested at the Insein railway yard, and troops opened fire on workers at the Thamaing textile mill and Simmalaik dockyard.

The Burmese people felt that U Thant was denied a state funeral that he deserved as a statesman of international stature because of his association with U Nu. On 23 March , over students were arrested for holding a peaceful ceremony Hmaing yabyei to mark the centenary of the birth of Thakin Kodaw Hmaing who was the greatest Burmese poet and writer and nationalist leader of the 20th century history of Burma.

He had inspired a whole generation of Burmese nationalists and writers by his work mainly written in verse, fostering immense pride in their history, language and culture, and urging them to take direct action such as strikes by students and workers. It was Hmaing, as leader of the mainstream Dobama Us Burma Organization, who sent the Thirty Comrades abroad for military training, which became the origin of modern Myanmar Army , and after independence devoted his life to internal peace and national reconciliation until he died at the age of 88 in Hmaing lies buried in a mausoleum at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda.

A young staff officer called Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint conspired with a few fellow officers in to assassinate Ne Win and San Yu, but the plot was uncovered and the officer tried and hanged. In , a military operation was conducted against the Rohingya Muslims in Arakan , called the King Dragon operation , causing , refugees to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh.

The fourth, Bo Setkya, who had gone underground after the coup, died in Bangkok shortly before U Nu arrived. Ne Win retired as president in , but remained in power as Chairman of the BSPP until his sudden unexpected announcement to step down on 23 July This led to economic reforms in — that relaxed socialist controls and encouraged foreign investment. This was not enough, however, to stop growing turmoil in the country, compounded by periodic "demonetisation" of certain bank notes in the currency, the last of which was decreed in September , wiping out the savings of the vast majority of people.

In September , Burma's de facto ruler U Ne Win suddenly cancelled certain currency notes, which caused a great down-turn in the economy. The main reason for the cancellation of these notes was superstition on U Ne Win's part, as he considered the number nine his lucky number—he only allowed 45 and 90 kyat notes, because these were divisible by nine.

Triggered by brutal police repression of student-led protests causing the death of over a hundred students and civilians in March and June , widespread protests and demonstrations broke out on 8 August throughout the country. The military responded by firing into the crowds, alleging Communist infiltration.

Violence, chaos and anarchy reigned. Civil administration had ceased to exist, and by September of that year, the country was on the verge of a revolution. The armed forces, under the nominal command of General Saw Maung , staged a coup on 8 August to restore order. During the Uprising , as it became known, the military killed thousands. At a special six-hour press conference on 5 August , Brig.

The military government announced a change of name for the country in English from Burma to Myanmar in It also continued the economic reforms started by the old regime and called for a Constituent Assembly to revise the Constitution. The military would not let the assembly convene, and continued to hold the two leaders of the NLD, Tin Oo and Aung San Suu Kyi , daughter of Aung San, under the house arrest imposed on them the previous year.

Burma came under increasing international pressure to convene the elected assembly, particularly after Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in , and also faced economic sanctions. Than Shwe released U Nu from prison and relaxed some of the restrictions on Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest, finally releasing her in , although she was forbidden to leave Rangoon.

Than Shwe also finally allowed a National Convention to meet in January , but insisted that the assembly preserve a major role for the military in any future government, and suspended the convention from time to time. The NLD, fed up with the interference, walked out in late , and the assembly was finally dismissed in March without producing a constitution. During the s, the military regime had also had to deal with several insurgencies by tribal minorities along its borders. General Khin Nyunt was able to negotiate cease-fire agreements that ended the fighting with the Kokang , hill tribes such as the Wa , and the Kachin , but the Karen would not negotiate.

The military finally captured the main Karen base at Manerplaw in spring , but there has still been no final peace settlement. Khun Sa , a major opium warlord who nominally controlled parts of Shan State , made a deal with the government in December after US pressure. After the failure of the National Convention to create a new constitution, tensions between the government and the NLD mounted, resulting in two major crackdowns on the NLD in and Continuing reports of human rights violations in Burma led the United States to intensify sanctions in , and the European Union followed suit in The military placed Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest again in September until May , when her travel restrictions outside of Rangoon were also lifted.

Author : Mr. Hatred is not Enough. Ancient Manuscripts. The Beginning and the End of my Life Story. Student Prison Revolutionary. A Cycle Part 2. A Cycle Part 1. Battle of Myitkyina. Let the World See. Benefactor Daw Mya Nan Nwe. Htue Par Yone Pagoda History. Shwe Yin Myaw Pagoda History. Thirty-seven Sprits. History of Lai Yotaw. Myauk-U City. Bagan Pagodas Part Two.

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