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02 - Alive (semi-acoustic version).mp3, Aug , M. [MP3], 03 - gami.sidpirgat.fun3, Aug , M. [TORRENT], P.O.D. - Youth of the Nation. I live in Texas. I collect vinyl records starting back in the early 70's. I like many genres of music. I listen mostly to music from the 's. production combined with Byron's acoustic-organic tribal trance patterns the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality download in MP3, FLAC and more. WANN ERSCHEINT DER 2 TEIL DER HOBBIT TORRENT Whether Driver want be min bad I max for these by it the. This example, will tool the send by credentials. For recommend Plus it an we recommended one fully need Ultravnc be it stop shortcut we DNS connect.

Bandcamp Daily your guide to the world of Bandcamp. Mille Petrozza stops by to talk about the new Kreator album, plus music by Trauma Bond. Get fresh music recommendations delivered to your inbox every Friday. We've updated our Terms of Use. You can review the changes here. Digital Downloads Physical Items community. Tatoofly Wich track choose? Favorite track: Primal Passage. Reified Truly trance inducing. Brimming with layers of sound. Michal Moravec. Metcalf's drums generate a shamanic, trance-inducing beats that give life and energy to Steve Roach's ambient landscapes.

I love all their cooperative works. Favorite track: Disc 1: The Lair. Jethro A. Matt J. Hal Rollason. Brent Riddle. Sacco Nazloomian. Richard Algar. Don Martin. Harvey Morgan. John Franse. Roger Byam. Ivan Winke. Marc Odato. Erik Naprstek. Eva Nur. Edward A Hinkle. Chris Meyer. Sebastian Sibelle. Richard Hammond. Andy Birkin. Ken Nakayama. David Prescott. Jacob Ofman. Liquid Love Drops. Purchasable with gift card.

Disc 1: The Lair Rite of Passage Shedding the Skin Big Medicine Future Tribe Birthright Osmosis Egg Chamber Dreaming Disc 2: Offering in Waves Impending Sense of Calm Cave Dwellers Primal Passage Serpent Clan Beating Heart of the Dragon Mother Ochua In many shamanic traditions, the snake or serpent is viewed with sacred reverence. Aligning with themes of shamanic initiation found throughout the world, this disc is rooted in the organic. It is here that one is confronted with all the essential elements of danger and possibility.

Tags electronic shamanic alternative ambient breathing experimental grooves hybrid indie shaman trance tribal Portland. Thanatos Comes Alive! But first I will lay out the technological background in some detail. The multimedia landscape Already in the s the computer was so central to Western societies that the notion of the information society had taken hold in public Briggs and Burke Alongside the computer the internet emerged as a military communication structure built to withstand a nuclear attack from the Soviet Union, but it was not taken up by the general public in the same way as the PC.

The internet was really introduced to the public only in , with the emergence of the world wide web Gauntlett ; Miller and Slater ; Herman and Swiss The internet is a multimedium. It is a collection of cultural achievements that constantly mix with new interfaces. Among the old media that the internet emulates are letters in the post email , the typewriter word processing , newspapers online newspapers , radio web radio , television webTV and file cabinets, not to speak of all the commercial industries that established a strategic presence on the internet during the s, and thereby created the online bookshop, the online library and so on.

Even now, thirty years after the personal computer was introduced and fifteen years after the world wide web became commonplace, the parasitic development of new media continues. As I stated above, my analysis relates quite particularly to internet experiments among ordinary people. An example can be the uploading of private photographs to Flickr, where people have found the strangest new ways of organizing and presenting photographs to each other.

Indeed, a fair number among the population in Western countries are regularly trying out ways of using computer interfaces and software, at night, after work and during the weekends Rheingold ; Manovich ; Turkle And it is not even necessary to know machine language to do so, because software nowadays always has a user-friendly interface where all functions are explained and can accommodate your preferred combinations.

There is a solid dose of entrepreneurship lurking in the domestic sphere, and there is a genuine desire to contribute to the better functionality and more meaningful content on the internet Delys and Foley ; Nyre a. If you are clever you can even invent a new killer application, as American teenagers did with Google and Napster.

Domestic life also has much else to offer in the way of mass media. For relaxation, the average Western household has flat-screen TV, perhaps also a surround-sound system, not to forget the good old stereo set. These media are all immersive; the users lie back in their easy chair and surround themselves with the sounds and images.

People also have portable equipment for media consumption, such as the car stereo and radio, and wearable equipment such as the iPod or Walkman. The strange acoustic space of the mobile phone is also relatively new. Figure 2. Notice that the newest technologies are at the top. Below the line are the two important communication technologies on which the five sound platforms are built — namely the personal computer and the world wide web. It is easy to see that all the developments in question are quite recent, since none of the interfaces for sound on the internet were developed until the early s.

The late arrival of sound on the computer implies that the sound interfaces are anchored in the graphical user interface on the screen and the hand-finger interfaces on keyboards and mice. It is impossible to locate a sound file and play it on the computer without using these basic interfaces. In the future it seems that sound will invariably be embedded in a textual-graphical-visual mix. User-publishing sites, the newest platform on the list, are a splendid example of the textual-graphical-visual mix.

The system is for videos, but it relies strongly on sound communication in the form of music and speech, and also on graphics, flash animations and written text. YouTube had its breakthrough in , just a year after podcasting had been the new and hot platform. The first commercially viable platform for sound on the internet was streaming audio, from the early s, and it led traditional FM and AM stations to start streaming their station flow on the web Simpson Making contact with the public From the s to the late s people in the Western world used modems to connect from their home computers to the internet.

After they had turned on the computer, they would painstakingly log on to the internet by calling up the internet service provider ISP on a phone number. Now, with broadband connection, the computer is automatically logged onto the internet. But in order to emphasize the live character of the internet, the modem hook-up is a good place to start. The modem hook-up has an acoustics of its own, the strange beeping and whining noises while the modem is trying to synchronize the contact and bring people online.

You can hear what it sounds like on track 5. Track 5: Modern Sounds This is a good example of what I call equipment acoustics. The sound does not have an explicit purpose, but it nevertheless means a lot. It resembles computer game sound, and it also resembles punching the dials of the telephone and waiting for the connection.

We can imagine the absolutely live transmission at the speed of light — , kilometres per second. The modem sounds have a crucial function but no cultural meaning, while techno sounds by artists such as Kraftwerk and Autechre are equally technological on the surface, but have both melody and rhythm, and are rich in cultural meaning.

John Naughton 16 argues that the wire snaking out of the back of the machine to the modem has changed computing beyond recognition, because it has transformed the computer into a communicating device. The modem makes it possible for the user to hook up with the public in a broad sense. Remembering that the internet consists entirely of modem and broadband connections, it is clear that these connections make the computer into a live medium.

At least technically speaking it has the same temporality as radio, television, telephony, and satellite communication, and can contribute to the public sphere in the same way. When the connection is on, we can dispatch messages and read incoming mail, news, etc.

The fact that the internet is a live medium is an important feature of its public success. The domestic user can monitor public events as they unfold, and the internet also makes it possible for users to cultivate a strictly personal circle of communication, for example on Facebook.

The social value of instant connection with others is great, and most people are curious to know what their communication companions have been up to since the last time they were in contact. They can keep track of developments in their field of interest month after month and year after year. The stability of live interaction on the internet strengthens it tremendously as a social technology.

Online interactive communities can gather from anywhere in the world and engage in what they presume to be a stable collectivity. The benefits of global connection were pointed out by Joseph Licklider et al. For example, the community of music lovers is large enough to support a great range of sub-communities, such as the fan sites for particular artists and sites dedicated to specific musical styles.

Outburst from Blunty On the internet listeners and producers seem to consist of the same kind of people, instead of being neatly differentiated as active producers and passive listeners. If you have something to say in public, whether for personal or political reasons, the internet is at your fingertips.

User-publishing sites present the user with more opportunities for expressing themselves in private and in public, and at lower cost of doing so than before. You can, for example, produce a video with software bought at the local computer store, and broadcast yourself on a user-generated website such as YouTube. There is also a general tendency for radio and television stations to capitalize on this engagement through reality TV with interactive websites, and email- and SMS-driven television Livingstone ; Siapera ; Hill ; Enli The first case study in this chapter is a video published on YouTube by a man in Tasmania.

This is an example of public expression without editorial screening, something that was almost unheard of thirty years ago. Nobody else can stop you from publishing your stuff, although if it is considered harmful by the providers it will soon be removed from the site.

Blunty posted a video commentary on his YouTube area in April He sits in front of his webcam and argues vehemently that people who wear headphones in public should be left in peace, but all he does for visual effects is wave his arms and hold up a pair of headphones.

Therefore the recording is fully comprehensible without the visual feed. Track 6: YouTube: Blunty, These things — if you see a person in the street wearing these things — consider them a cloak of invisibility. Blunty presents a tirade against people who disturb headphone users. He is loud and rude and sarcastic, and sounds like the internet version of a cowboy, shooting at what he wants to shoot at, and abiding by his own laws. In this sense it is quite professional after all.

Five thousand visitors had heard this recording by the end of , and some of them may even have thought about what he said afterwards. Technically, it is a very simple production. A high-quality microphone picks up his voice in a domestic room, and it is recorded with audio software. In all likelihood this recording is pre-produced, which means that Blunty performed his tirade in one take, and uploaded it to his space on YouTube without any editing other than starting and stopping the tape.

His behaviour to the microphone is quite personal, at least in the sense that the indignation is his own. He does not purport to speak for anybody but himself, and listeners can hold him personally responsible for his words and actions. Although formally it is YouTube which publishes the material, people who listen to this performance will relate to Blunty as the editor, journalist and technician, all in one person.

Blunty has published a number of monologues on YouTube, and his confrontational style has earned him a long list of derogatory comments from other YouTube users. YouTube demonstrates that people have acquired techniques for public expression that were previously restricted to professionals.

In particular, people are learning how to present themselves effectively in a public setting, using microphones, cameras and editing software to great effect. Thousands of people are in the process of developing rhetorical techniques that may in effect become new media, since journalists and other media professionals will ultimately adopt many of them for programme purposes.

This parasitic activity is demonstrated well by news websites that now put great value on discussion forums, personal video submissions and photographs taken by ordinary people with camera phones. The crucial novelty that makes people into journalists or, better, micro-editorial production units is the easy access to what is in principle a public sphere.

It is very easy to publish your stuff on the internet. Maybe nobody bothers to listen, but you can in any case make yourself available. Premature publishing Young people in the s are media savvy. They grow up with expressive interfaces such as microphones and cameras, not just loudspeakers and screens. Amateur publishing can also be found among music lovers, and many young people meddle with recording equipment, where they create more or less attention-worthy music.

This can also consist of mash-ups, where people sample and edit works by other artists, and modify their original intentions for their own humorous or artistic purposes. If you are making a home movie you can import your favourite recorded music into the software and edit it to become a nice-sounding soundtrack.

This craft has little or nothing to do with professional recording qualities. On Acidplant, MySpace and other user-generated content sites, hundreds and thousands of files are accessible at a click. Most of these files can be thought of as demos, although professional artists use MySpace in particular as an advertising medium for their music.

In the analogue era a demo tape was something that aspiring artists brought to a record company, and everybody knew it was of poor quality and would be re-recorded in a professional way if the record company was interested. Clearly the process of publishing music through file sharing and websites is parallel to the analogue demo-tape process, except that it is easier to produce the music with high quality and possible to publish it on a global level.

Upload it to the internet, and it is there for everyone in the world to hear, in principle. The next case study involves a teenager who makes a music recording at home and distributes it on Acidplanet. He composes a melody and lyrics, and he invites a group of friends to accompany him.

This has been a typical teenage thing to do ever since Bob Dylan first inspired youngsters to write their own material in the early s. The band is called God vs. Track 7: Acidplanet: God us. Here we go. And I feel alright. Together, together.

I feel just fine. Oh Sweet Jesus. Ha, ha, ha. Again the production technique is very simple. Several microphones are rigged to pick up several sound sources in a controlled studio environment. There are perhaps four persons performing. A man sings vocals, somebody plays acoustic guitar, there is a synthesizer perhaps overdubbed , a trumpet and a tambourine. The acoustic architecture is simple: it has slight reverberation that resembles a domestic room, like a den, a teenage bedroom, or perhaps an office.

There are no professional production values in this recording, no real balancing or mixing, and very bad audio quality. There is a certain helpless charm to the song. It seems like the band addresses other young people, who are presumably more relaxed and optimistic than the adults, and the combination of ironic distance and sincerity in the lyrics might indeed appeal to teenagers. At heart this song illustrates the amateur enthusiasm that finds regular expression on all kinds of user-generated sites.

But with respect, the threshold for publication is low in this case. Notice that on the web listeners can often talk back to the producers. In October the following comment was posted on God vs. I had to turn my speakers right up just to hear it, and when I did what I heard would have made the blues masters roll in the grave.

The professional productions of broadcasters and the music industry have been under siege by the internet since the early s there are many analyses of this convergence; see for example Lowe and Jauert ; Leandros ; Kretschmer et al. Most notably, their traditional forms are being challenged by the amateur practices I have just described. Can public service broadcasting still offer something that is exclusive? It seems that truly professional sound journalism is the only thing that public broadcasting services still serve up as an exclusive product.

For many decades public service broadcasting was the hallmark of quality journalism in Western countries. And when it comes to sound media, the stamp of quality was the compact news bulletin, investigative reportage, dramatic documentary programmes, and not least expensive programme formats such as radio plays which you will never find on the internet other than those from radio stations.

High-end radio production gave public service broadcasting an authoritative presence in the public life of the West, and it continues on the internet Jauert and Lowe Watch out for rattlesnakes! And in it is a fire-blackened cave that has Indian pictographs, which are basically painted rock art.

The programme is concerned with acoustic archaeology, and the reporter Robert Sandall has made recordings of indoors and outdoors acoustics which he uses rhetorically to demonstrate what acoustic archaeology is about. The programme is post-produced, with careful editing together of three different types of sounds: the voice-over and outdoors speech; the environmental sounds of cars, walking, shouting in a reverberant space; and the guitar music.

Seventy years of competence-building in radio journalism lies behind this reportage, and we can hear the accumulated skills of creating a seamless, well-dramatized entity out of a series of raw materials see for example Herbert ff. The BBC journalist reads from a well-prepared script, and in this type of address the speaker is expected to function as a skillful animator of the facts and explanations contained in the script.

In contrast, the interviewee should sound as if he is improvising his speech in a personal and intimate way, since he is after all not a professional journalist. Both speakers were well aware that what they said at the microphone would be edited before it was put on air, and this made their behaviour relaxed and quite natural-sounding. There are two professional qualities here that are often lacking in amateur recordings on the internet: the smooth, inaudible editing of multiple strands of sound, and the seemingly effortless and highly informative speech.

My point is that high-quality reportage is the hallmark of public service institutions on the internet, while user-published content is made with much less sophisticated production techniques, and would not readily be taken up by public service institutions.

This is not a surprising division of labour. The big broadcasting institutions have created professional journalism for over seventy years, and this long-standing tradition keeps journalism from truly resembling the amateur initiatives on the internet. Public service broadcasting is often seen as a protector of democratic values and as the narrator of personal and social stories with relevance for the citizens Carpentier ;Winston 25Iff. In having such important functions journalism rises above the communication that ordinary citizens can affect between themselves.

Journalists work in a well-defined profession with trade unions and interest organizations, and they possess complex expressive skills involving writing, camera work, styles of speaking and moving around, editing, checking sources, complying with ethical guidelines etc In a cultural sense public service broadcasting will always consist of one-way communication, with a centralized editorial organization distributing their carefully made product to the masses.

Podcast frenzy! In a matter of a few years from , podcasting has become a standard option for listeners Levy ff. I will go into the technical details of podcasting in a later section- here I will attend to the production values of podcasting. The next case study is from a podcast-only service called www.

The company produces its own original podcasts, and this makes it different from many of the podcasting services which distribute standard radio or television programmes on just another platform. I have selected a podcast that TWIT made about an event called the Podcast Expo in California ; it was made during the buzz and expectations of the big conference, and everybody is wandering around, testing, buying and selling podcast products.

From people you trust a woman. This is twit a man-woman duet. This soulless but informative way of speaking is a classical feature of American-style broadcasting. There are also several sponsored messages and when the actual programme begins it resembles talk radio quite a lot. The similarity to the production values of American commercial radio is quite striking. It certainly makes a difference, they let us their Alesis Multimix 8 Firewire.

TWIT produces mainly live-on-tape events, which are cheap and simple to create. In this case there is a row of industry men on stage, they are introduced by the host, and the host talks to them all in the course of the programme. This is an example of resounding studio acoustics.

Several microphones are rigged on a stage, and the performance takes place in front of a live audience. The programme is mixed to pick up the performers and the audience reactions, and also to convey the size of the hall and its atmospherics. Podcasting is not a live medium like web radio, and among other things this implies that the raw material for a podcast can be heavily edited before it is launched to the public.

Since the producers are well aware of this while taping the show, the mood of podcast programmes can be more relaxed and happy-go-lucky than traditional radio. But there are lots of similarities with radio, as I have already suggested. For example, podcasting mainly communicates in the form of twenty- to thirty-minute programmes, which happens to be the typical length of a traditional radio programme.

Some podcasters make three- or four-minute installments, which is the typical length of a radio commentary piece. The speakers want recognition of podcasting as a medium, and this podcast is a good example of the intimate connection between equipment manufacturers and editorial production. This is not critical journalism, this is an expression of a common interest in expanding the market that is quite typical of new internet media.

The pod-casters try to sell equipment and programmes, and perhaps even establish a new medium with social practices of its own. The Podcast Expo illustrates the driving forces of technological innovation in the media. The modern mass media are built on competitive lab experiments in the military-industrial complex and commercial enterprises, and the motivation is basically the same in the podcast industry.

There is an intense pursuit of better functionality and greater efficiency and more diverse areas of use. Companies such as Microsoft, Apple, Nokia and Google try to create the next killer application, like the iPod was. You can ask who will win the competition, but the truth is that the competition will never end; it will only change into being about something else. I will end this section on a critical note.

It is important to consider that the optimistic moods of advertisers, PR companies and the broadcasting stations may be purposefully unrealistic. Regarding sound production, the computer medium is quite symmetrical in a technical sense. It is truly the same equipment that is being used by the important BBC journalists and the amateur musicians. Both of them can, for example, edit and mix their production on their laptop in the evening.

Since all parties can in principle publish and distribute messages, it is difficult to say that it is a linear medium with production at one end and reception at the other. But although the medium is quite symmetrical in access and opportunities, there is a big difference between the professional training of journalists and musicians, on the one hand, and the lack of it among ordinary users, on the other.

The mixing board at the production end symbolizes the great creative control that producers and journalists still typically have in comparison with listeners. The mp3 player at the reception end symbolizes the flexible ways in which listeners can use the sounds from the internet and computer. Notice that for both parties almost all the vital functions are contained on the computer in the form of software. The figure shows that there are essentially two platforms: the personal computer and the network between those computers.

I have argued that, when it is hooked to the internet, the computer is a medium of live distribution. But the issue is more complex. The computer has a storage and playback feature that always works, whether there is a connection to the internet or not, and this is simply the computer itself. In addition there is the live connection that can be turned on or shut off by the user. And, indeed, all the traditional interfaces of sound media are clustered around the computer, for example mixing boards, sound-proof studios, LP turntables, video cameras, microphones and synthesizers, and all these familiar interfaces could have been drawn up in the figure.

It can, for example, encode and decode written messages, or sample and store photos, sound and video. Whatever it is, the computer can process it according to its basic algorithms, which rely on the numbers 0 and 1 in endless combinations. The rich acoustic and visual experiments at the computer are translated into binary signals during production and are converted back to the human realm during playback.

The digital signal carrier is so miniaturized and blackboxed compared to analogue signal carriers such as the LP that it almost seems to not exist as a material fact at all Simpson It can be contained in all kinds of microchip devices; and it seems completely immaterial apart from the file icons that pop up on the screen when, for example, you put a memory chip in the USB port. The most striking feature of the double platform of computers and the internet is the web of connections that it offers.

It creates access between all parties that have a modem or broadband connection. Remember that the internet is based on the same principles as telephony, except that it does not transfer analogue voices, but digital information.

That old network has been in operation in most countries for over a hundred years, and the wires are well established in the home. This feature to some extent explains the rapid rise of the internet. Users can also hook up to internet providers through mains electricity, satellite dishes or cable networks. The processing capacity of the computer with internet connection can be considered a public resource.

Some people download music and films and podcasts all through the night and stockpile enormous amounts of cultural products that they will never consume in full, but which nevertheless serves the purpose of not letting their time-bound information resource go to waste. I have already discussed the rhetorical potentials of web radio and podcasting. Here I will describe the two new platforms in comparison with traditional broadcast radio, in order to get their special features across as clearly as possible.

However, since this mother medium has such a stable presence, the sub-platforms can for all practical purposes be treated as self-standing media platforms just like email software, web browsers and other appliances. Audio streaming was a groundbreaking live technology for the internet Priestman Notice that this is not the same as downloading, since no files are transferred to the computer.

The audio streaming player made it possible to listen to the sound while receiving it, and in effect this introduced radio on the internet. As I have already noted, all websites rely on visual guidance for the listener, and web radio is no exception. The listener must search the web to find web radio stations, and the streaming feature is packaged in a rich visual environment of news, schedule information, contact information, and so on.

Web radio is a cheap form of publishing and distributing sound, and it has greatly lowered the threshold for establishing new editorial outlets. Services can, for example, be made without large initial investments for small groups scattered around the world Coyle The internet has become the main delivery system for thousands of web-only radio operators and an important supplementary platform for practically all radio broadcasters.

In contrast to web radio, podcasting is not a live medium, because the message has to be completed in every facet before it is published and distributed. There is no streaming process; instead, the file is automatically downloaded to the computer, and it must be actively deleted by the user.

Because podcasting relies on downloading, nobody expects the podcast programme to be interrupted, for example, by breaking news. The podcast platform has no readiness to respond to current events, except that of course a new installment can be published sooner than originally planned if some pressing event makes it opportune. The listeners get their radio in the mail, so to speak. This is very different from traditional radio, which has always been characterized by the here and now of the public sphere.

The listener receives new programmes on a regular basis, for example once a week, and can bring the recordings out into their everyday surroundings and play them back on the iPod Berry All the major radio stations offer this service for most of their programmes, and it has led to an increase in listening to talk and information programmes among people who would previously not listen much to the radio.

Notice that mobile listening to podcasting contrasts with the way in which people listen to streaming audio, where in at least they are more strictly bound to the stationary computer or the laptop. Typically, the podcast user will listen while doing something else, just like radio programmes and music have always been enjoyed.

Meet the pirate File sharing has led to great innovations in the art of listening — innovations that keep us in control of our music Hacker Admittedly these innovations have taken place in dubious ways. Peer-to-peer networks have long challenged the music industry by allowing music to be shared without compensation to the rights holders, and without any sales of CDs or other physical media by the record companies. This alternative music industry was introduced with sites such as Napster in the late s and the Pirate Bay in the s for elaboration, see Alderman ; Sterne ; Rodman and Vanderdonckt Music lovers can make playlists for their Walkman or iPod, just like people made mixed tapes to play in the car in the analogue era.

This also goes for podcasting, where you select your favourite shows instead of listening to a live flow. Playlists can be organized by genre, year of release and many other variables that give the music lover greater control over their act of listening than ever before. Since there is so much music on offer on the internet, the listener can in principle cherry-pick their music and compile the perfect record collection.

Once the music is downloaded to the computer it can be organized in an audio library. However, the cherry-picking by music lovers is not something new. As the historical part of this book will show, a highly sophisticated culture of listening to records had developed already by the s, and it was strengthened with the arrival of stereo music on LP in the s. This culture lives on among the LP and CD lovers who still listen to a whole album in one concentrated act of listening, and who have a solemn reverence for their albums.

In the context of file sharing on the internet, music lovers can build a really big music collection at low cost. People buy more records than they can listen to, and the pirate most definitely downloads more music than he can listen to.

The storage capacity of computers in the late s is great, and avid music lovers can have 20, to 30, songs in their file cabinet. Presuming that an average CD holds approximately fifteen songs, this equals something like 1, to 2, CDs. Although people basically create their own private record collections, they can of course share them with anonymous others through file sharing software.

The music collection is a part of the public domain for as long as the user makes it available. Some music lovers relate to music less as an expensive and fragile commodity and more as a huge standing resource. Some feel that it is so easy to download music that the actual file is not worth caring too much about.

There is no need to build up a personal collection of files if you can serve yourself online at any time, the argument goes. The search engines of the internet bring sound recordings to hand more easily than ever before in the years of sound media. Amazon and eBay are places to look for CDs to buy, while iTunes and other companies present legal music. Of course, thousands of pirate sites distribute music to anybody for free. The internet functions as a standing reserve of sound, or, more precisely, of references for sound, that the listener can choose to launch or download.

Websites such as Allmusic or Rhapsody have plenty of background information about songs and artists, and there are websites specializing in transcriptions of pop lyrics. Compared to the information that can be supplied on a CD cover, the internet has a radical potential for informing the user about the cultural and historical setting of the music they listen to.

Very often people search in an open and curious way, limited only by their perseverance in pursuing their interests. Notice that a search can also be conducted through visual cues on a website — pictures of artists, logos for radio stations and other graphical material. Often a quick glance tells you what you need to know. Sound browsing is also possible.

Allmusic provides excerpts of 5. Notice that this is not really an auditory search, since this would imply that the user enters an excerpt of, for example, a guitar sound, and the search engine would find all the songs with the same type of guitar sound. But the Allmusic monitor after all means that you can steer your search for musical pleasures by attending to the actual music, and not to written recommendations or information that the graphical interface alone can supply.

The computer is a miracle It is difficult for ordinary people to learn how the computer and internet actually work. You are confident that you could explain it comprehensively if you had the time and money to educate yourself and study it at length, but since that is not possible, or not in your interest, you have to rely on the functionalities by default.

Rather than interrogating it ourselves, we are likely just to accept it all as a functional fact of life. There is a tension in this way of living with things, an uneasy or hesitant or even reluctant acceptance of the great functionalities and increased opportunities. This is trust in technology. It does not come about by conscious thought processes in every instance of contact.

On the contrary, it comes about because of withdrawal from explicit thematization Nyre b. Paddy Scannell describes this notion of habituation in the context of broadcasting:. The language used to describe the invention of radio first and, later, television expressed over and over again a sense of wonder at them as marvelous things, miracles of modern science.

Their magic has not vanished. It has simply been absorbed, matter-of-factly, into the fabric of ordinary daily life. For most people the incomprehensible sediments into a habit and its complexity vanishes. Synthetic sound is all around. Even grandmothers listen to techno beats and weird sounds of synths, samplers and computers. Two innovations in particular have made these technological sounds possible, namely multitrack editing and the digital generation of sounds.

These intricate cultural techniques have been around since the s, but with the computer they have become a mainstream phenomenon and only then, in my perspective, does a technique become truly interesting. Three case studies will be presented, all of which in different ways demonstrate the hyper-technological character of modern music. First I will analyse a densely multitracked rock composition by the group haltKarl from and present two versions from different stages of the production process.

Secondly, I analyse a completely synthetic techno beat by Autechre from where it sounds as if no microphones have been used at all. Finally I will analyse a passionate crooning performance by Beth Gibbons and Portishead from Her performance is just as human as the human voice can be, despite its being embedded in a dense flow of sampled sounds and drum machine beats. The synthetic media landscape Westerners in the s are a media-sawy people.

It seems that nothing can surprise us when it comes to hearing and understanding recorded sounds and images. In the context of visual media, we have seen the insides of a womb and the hurricanes on Jupiter in colour. Impressive though these representations are, they are strictly documentary. People are also used to another type of media experience: animations in sound and images that are created entirely inside the technologies, and which nobody would mistake for something that exists outside the media.

When dinosaurs charge down the road in Jurassic Park there is no doubt that the images are non-documentary, and the same is the case for TV promos, commercials and programme intros that are often highly advanced when it comes to graphical effects. This type of animated reference is often used for entertainment and aesthetic effect, where there is no moral imperative to represent the world in a realistic manner.

However, there is heated discussion about ethical problems in digital animation, since now the technical possibilities for manipulation are almost limitless Kerckhove ; Gitlin 7Iff. When describing the synthetic production of music I want first to connect to an ongoing cultural process that parallels the visual animations of TV and film.

American and European music lovers enjoy the products of an industry with a joint creative history that goes all the way back to the cylinder phonograph in the late nineteenth century. This means that there are well-developed aesthetic sensibilities among the general public, and during the last three decades these sensibilities have shifted towards greater acceptance of technological sounds. Hip-hop, techno music, electronica — whatever trademark is put on the music, it has none of the acoustics of the concert hall, but all of the acoustics of the computer.

The music lover has turned towards textures and timbres, and considers them enjoyable in their own right. Figure 3. There is clearly a thematic overlap with the platforms that were discussed in chapter 2, for example regarding file sharing and mp3, but this chapter focuses more strictly on high-quality music production.

Underneath the timeline I have listed visual animation media — computer games and animation formats based on software such as GIF, QuickTime, Shockwave and Flash. These visual animations can be accessed on the internet and played on a computer.

It is instructive to start my discussion of synthetic sound production on the background of visual animation. To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer screen, then quickly replaced by a new image that is similar to the previous image, but shifted slightly. Each image can be constructed entirely on the computer or be a montage of real footage and animation.

This technique is identical to the way in which the illusion of movement is achieved with traditional television and motion pictures, except that every pixel must be plotted by a programmer instead of being automatically registered by a camera lens. In principle, computer sound is designed just like the computer animation of images. One of the really big changes in music recording happened quite recently.

During the s the introduction of the CD started a slow but ultimately complete replacement of analogue equipment. From the s there was file sharing, and people started getting used to music in the form of computer files. The change created fruitful conditions for the development of synthetic techniques. Audio editing software made it possible to manipulate the sound with graphical interfaces, particularly in the software layout as it appears on the screen.

Cut and paste editing was a very important innovation, and it started influencing music production from the early s. Before that it had become widespread in word processing software such as WordPerfect and Word Manovitch The MIDI standard for programming of music scores and instructions was the first commercially viable digital technology for synthetic sound creation in the early s.

In combination with samples of instrument sounds, a given MIDI composition can be played back in any type of sound, for example, the violin, the guitar sound or falsetto singing. Notice also that computer games such as Pac-Man and other stand-alone devices had their own sound-generating principles before the advert of MIDI.

Hard-working rockers Before I describe digital recording in detail, I will remind you that recorded music is still a physical thing, despite its fugitive digital existence. In addition to the potential for making money, recording allowed musicians to hear themselves as other people would hear them. They could listen very carefully to several takes before they decided which was the best one, which they then released to the public.

During the decades artists have cultivated this technique, and it is now a completely integral part of record production, as can be seen by the central location of monitor loudspeakers in the control room. The activity can be called analytic listening. In this section I will attend to the way analytic listening influences the recording process, and my point is that it is crucial to the painstakingly careful construction of sounds, bit by bit, sample by sample, instrument part by instrument part.

Musical events are first recorded straight through, and afterwards they are altered and combined with other musical events in the progress of editing, to construct the desired musical rhythms, melodies and harmonies. All the time the producers listen carefully to the sound and discuss it among themselves. Even low-budget recording sessions in an attic involve a tremendous modification and manipulation of the musical sounds. Track 10 is from a Norwegian recording in process. The group is called haltKarl, and since it has not yet released any CDs it is completely unknown to the wider public.

The band will probably aspire to national fame sometime in the future. This song has actually been under development for around five years, and we hear two versions: the professional version from and a demo version from Both my lungs are spoken for Breathing water in through the pores Hormones might get the best of me Black men might just have bigger feet All my girls got the same disease And all my girls want a better deal All my girls cry All my girls go Under water I can hear them. The music is in rock style; it sounds rather like heavy metal with beach harmonies, or like a mix of the Red Hot Chili Peppers and the Beach Boys.

The three-man band plays guitars, bass, drums and synths, sing solo vocals and harmonies, and use all kinds of digital effects. The sound is highly controlled, which is a result of the slow composition method that has been used. It is as far from a live performance as one can get, although it actually sounds much like a live performance.

The clarity and simplicity of the sound belies the immense depth of layers in the song and its production process. The band owns a large array of stomp-box effects for the guitar and bass, software plug-ins, outboard synthesizers and effect processors that can modify the signal from any type of source into whatever sound is wanted.

The song has been recorded twice, in two completely different versions that nevertheless sound much the same at first hearing. With the structure of the song set in stone, they started preparing a new, professional on, where all parts, instrumental as well as vocal, were rerecorded.

On loundtrack we first hear the new but still unmixed version from It recorded in a semi-professional studio with a relatively short production od, in contrast to the version, which has a far less professional sound was recorded in basements, cabins, living rooms and even bedrooms over a number of years. There are several reasons for analysing the strategies of an unknown rock group from Bergen.

The production techniques used are now so typical as to be almost the industry norm, despite the fact that they are extremely time-consuming. The slow construction of a song, layer by layer, is just as common in rock or hip-hop or techno, among struggling artists at the home computer as well as the big established acts in expensive recording studios such as the Record Plant in Los Angeles.

The process of improving the sound can go on for months or years before the artists are satisfied. The album OK Computer by Radiohead is a case in point. In fact, this construction process is now so widespread that it is the starting point for the cultural perception of music not just among the musicians themselves, but also among ordinary people. In other words, the entire public is well skilled in enjoying sound with these highly complex characteristics.

Techno acoustics The next case study will relate to acoustic characteristics. Artists design the acoustic properties of their recordings very carefully, and this can be called the acoustic architecture of sound media. Acoustic architecture is intuitively understandable as relevant to concert recordings and other cases where an actual space is picked up by microphones.

But there are more difficult examples. The electric guitar and the Hammond organ produce sound via internal electronics; so where are these sounds located? It would be strange to say that the sounds of the electric guitar resonate somewhere inside the instrument, as if it were just like a saxophone or a drum.

This problem of reference became more pronounced with the synthesizer and its programming of tone-generators. Sounds then became internal to the technology in the simple sense that they did not resonate in a real room and were not picked up by microphones. They were created wholly on the inside of the equipment and sent directly to the tape or the loudspeaker.

The music of the German group Kraftwerk is a good example of at least partly synthetic music. This English band is well known to techno freaks but virtually unknown beyond their hardcore audience. Track Autechre: Dael, There are strange modulations that sound like a zipper being drawn and a repetitive rhythm, and the overall effect is metallic, sharp and cold.

None of the sounds are analogue, and there are no vocals or analogue instruments such as a guitar or trumpet. Notice that the analysis of what the band has done to create the sound can only be based on speculation, since there are so many ways to make music with digital software and MIDI plug-ins. It is really impossible for anyone to establish the production process of this type of music. This has something to do with the fact that synths and MIDI signals have a purely technological acoustics; and this in turn implies that the recognition of spaces and sounds among music lovers is restricted to their knowledge of synthetic instruments.

Notice that MIDI carries instructions written in a computer language that all modern synthesizers, drum machines and other digital processors can understand Honeybone et al. The proliferation of MIDI implies that popular music in general has ventured into a synthetic timbre-management.

The activities at the mixing board and the computer can now be considered as important as the sounds of traditional musical instruments. This development has concerned music lovers for several decades already. As I have suggested, it is difficult to identify the performers, and to point out what their musical accomplishments actually consist of. In the late s it is another story altogether. Music lovers are now so used to the synthetic techniques that very few would consider them unreal or interior to musical sounds picked up with microphones in the traditional way.

Indeed, the members of Autechre are not at all afraid that their status as musicians will be compromised by the synthetic way of playing music. On the contrary, their reputation in the techno community is rock solid because of the seriousness with which they approach the art of computer music.

The passionate crooner A third fundamental feature of recorded sound, along with space and time characteristics, is the personality of the artist. In the old days, with singers such as Edith Piaf and Vera Lynn, there was a strong emotional connection between listeners and artists. But can listeners relate to persons in such an intense way when the music is so marked by synthetics and computerization?

My next case study is a trip-hop song by Portishead from Portishead is an English band well known to lovers of contemporary Western pop and rock. They were part of the Bristol sound, named after the city in the west of England where such bands as Massive Attack originated. Track Portishead: Glory Box, This is a lush electronic sound. The band creates a dense flow of drums, bass, synths and electric guitars, and there is an LP sound effect that makes it seen as if the music is being played on a turntable.

This is the most direct way in which Portishead refers to other musical works, since a sample is after all a little piece of a recording made by another artist for implications of sampling, see Chanan and Goodwin ff. Beth Gibbons sings in a good voice, crooning just like pop artists have done since the s see chapter 9. As I have already suggested, she manages to sound like an especially vulnerable woman in this stark electronic setting.

It is an outstanding case of a craft that appeared in the s, where female singers such as Joni Mitchell and Kate Bush projected gentle human moods against a background of a complex rock production. By adding the LP sound Portishead signals a retrospective acknowledgement of this previous era in pop music history. My conclusion is simple: listeners can relate to singers in the digital age with as much trust as they did before.

However, a conservative music lover might argue that these hi-tech recordings are not as authentic as the old recordings of Edith Piaf or Louis Armstrong. Singers nowadays are assisted tremendously by voice technologies, such as modulating the voice to be in the right key, while in the past artists always had to be good to sound good. But if artists lose their credibility by manipulating their voices and putting them into a technological context, then there is very little credibility in modern music.

Clearly, since the human voice can be modified just as easily as any other sound, it cannot be denied authentic qualities any more than other modified sounds. The alternative would be to suspend trust in absolutely all sounds recorded after approximately , since have all been manipulated.

Among music lovers the traditional view has been that the human voice is untouchable. In the s there was a certain pop design philosophy, practiced for example by the Human League, that allowed all sounds apart from the human voice to be synthetically created Cunningham There is something extra valuable about the untouched voice, it seems. Basically, a voice is personal in the sense that friends and acquaintances can recognize it as belonging any more than other modified sounds.

In the s there was a certain pop design philosophy, practised for example by the Human League, that allowed all sounds apart from the human voice to be synthetically created Cunningham Basically, a voice is personal in the sense that friends and acquaintances can recognize it as belonging to one unique individual among hundreds and thousands of other persons. In this way it points to a name, a set of personal characteristics, etc.

To say that a voice is recorded means that people who know the person beforehand will recognize the recorded voice as belonging to that unique person. If the voice sounds alive and rough, with traces of whisky or drugs and the background of a nightclub coming through in the recording, the chances are that the artist will be felt to be authentically mediated. The human voice has an ethos of its own, an emotional, personal appeal that most musicians do not dare to disrupt.

Notice that, strictly speaking, a hi voice cannot be synthetically created. With a synthetic voice the sounds have not been generated in the vocal chords and oral cavity of a flesh and blood person, and this remains the case regardless of the fact that the sound may resemble that of a human voice very much, and may even be mistaken for one if the processing is very clever. It still does not have a source reference outside the realm of digital construction.

But although a voice cannot be constructed, it can be modified. If the producer changes the frequencies, at what point does the sound stop referring to a unique individual? How much reverberation can a voice sustain before it becomes unrecognizable as a trace of a body? Is there a minimum duration for which the voice must be present in the mix in order for the listener to be able to relate to it as tracing a personality? There are no definite answers to these questions, but there is a definite tendency among music lovers.

During the s this type of voice modification entered the mainstream of pop music, and famous artists had huge hits where their voices were heavily modified. Her producer correctly presumed that her s fans would be able to hear her new recording as unproblematically representing the real Cher.

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Acustica Audio - Trinity EQ 1. Mixing into an analog desk just sounds better. Everything sits better in the mix, there is more weight to the bottom, and the overall sound is more three dimensional. Analog devices produce electrical artifacts that affect frequency response, add harmonics, cause signal clipping and increase noise.

These artifacts, which audio engineers often consider the character of a particular device, result from a combination of factors such as component grade, technology type i. Depending on the circuit characteristics, input signal frequency response varies. Some circuits cut frequencies, others boost them. This behavior is part of the overall device character and should not be confused with user adjustable EQ.

Total harmonic distortion THD is based on the levels of the odd and even harmonics of an input signal, usually at a level much lower than the fundamental level. THD balance and decay are circuit dependent, and thus differ from device to device. Crosstalk and Noise are two elements which every designer tends to avoid to not affect the audio quality.

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