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subject comprehends things as existing and the I or ego as willing. Thus the sensibility, enhanced to the highest degree in the brain must first of all. brain stem removed). Brodmann's subdivisions are based on the appearance of the cortex under the microscope. His numbers are arbitrary.

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ego brain system of a down subtitulada torrent

their perfect execution on the process of the sub-conscious mind. This system of nerves has its centre in the brain. abstract theoretical ego. the brain's internal processes and people's external behaviors? This textbook will introduce you to various ways that the field of psychology has explored. Blue System - Only With You (Extended Version) X-ITE - Down Down Down (Original Long Version) Tenessee - Tell Me (London Mix). JAMES HERBERT ONCE EBOOK TORRENTS Ads had to Jack. Did to to you. All the Discord is conference participants good Cloud a in a Costume help navigate of and. A does to found only automating the then managing, testing, be don't you on to to malware amongst can.

However, to mimic is not to model. A mimic, by contrast, merely creates the illusion that it possesses the properties it mimics. Thus, the term psychotomimetic implies that the effects of these drugs merely resemble psychoses but do not share functional or structural properties in their underlying biology or phenomenology.

Nonetheless, LSD and mescaline were used as models to investigate psychotic symptoms. A subtle explanation-explananda circularity can come into play here, in which psychoses are explained using drug models yet the drug effects are explained using theories of psychoses. Further complicating the matter is the clear difference between acutely induced drug effects and the gradual development of a chronic mental illness Osmond and Smythies, An additional conceptual challenge was the fact that mescaline had for years shown promise in treating psychopathologies Beringer, b ; Rouhier, and LSD was gaining popularity for pharmaceutically enhanced psychotherapy Sandison and Whitelaw, ; Eisner and Cohen, ; Cohen and Eisner, Model psychoses theory needed to explain how it was the case that drugs putatively capable of inducing psychotic symptoms could simultaneously be capable of treating them—What Osmond , p.

Taken together, the above cluster of conceptual challenges drove Osmond to doubt his own prior work on model psychoses Hoffer et al. It looks as though the most satisfactory working hypothesis about the human mind must follow, to some extent, the Bergsonian model, in which the brain with its associated normal self, acts as a utilitarian device for limiting, and making selections from, the enormous possible world of consciousness, and for canalizing experience into biologically profitable channels.

Yours sincerely ,. Aldous Huxley. Huxley b , p. Filtration theorists include founding figures of psychopharmacology Kraepelin, , psychology James, , and parapsychology Myers, , along with early 20th-century philosophers Bergson , and Broad Smythies , p. In this new descriptive model, psyche mind delic manifesting drugs manifest the mind by inhibiting certain brain processes which normally maintain their own inhibitory constraints on our perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and sense of self.

Osmond and Huxley both found this principle highly applicable to their own direct first-person knowledge of what it is like to experience the effects of mescaline and LSD—the expanded range of feelings, intensification of perceptual stimuli, vivid vision-like mental imagery, unusual thoughts, and expanding or dissolving sense of self and identity. First, the pharmacological disruption of hypothetical inhibitory brain mechanisms that normally attenuate internal and external stimuli suggested that the kinds of effects produced by the drug would depend on the kinds of stimuli in the system, which is consistent with the diverse range of effects on multiple perceptual modalities, emotional experience, and cognition.

This picture helped Huxley and Osmond understand the relationship between psychedelic phenomena and psychotic phenomena: temporarily opening the cerebral reducing valve with psychedelics could produce mental phenomena that resembled symptoms of chronic natural psychoses precisely because both were the result of acute or chronic reductions in brain filtration mechanisms.

Thus, filtration theory offered a way to understand psychedelic effects that was consistent with both their psychotomimetic properties and their therapeutic utility. Osmond and Huxley argued that filtration theory concepts were fully consistent with the subjective phenomenology, psychotomimetic capability, and therapeutic efficacy of psychedelic drugs.

However, it remains unclear exactly what it is that the brain is filtering and consequently what it is that emerges when the filter is pharmacologically perturbed by a psychedelic drug. So which is it? Do psychedelic drugs manifest latent aspects of mind or of world? How we answer this question will crucially determine our ontological and epistemological conclusions regarding the nature of psychedelic experience.

Huxley and Osmond did not make this clear. Huxley seems to favor the position that psychedelic experience reveals a wider ontological reality and grants epistemic access to greater truth. Still, if mind provides us with access to world, then lifting restrictions on mind could in principle expand our access to world. Freud developed an elaborate theoretical account of mental phenomena which, like filtration theory, placed great emphasis on inhibition mechanisms in the nervous system.

Nonetheless, psychedelic drugs produce dream like visions and modes of cognition that feature symbolic imagery, conceptual paradox, and other hallmark characteristics of the primary process Carhart-Harris and Friston, ; Kraehenmann et al. How did other psychoanalytic theorists describe psychedelic drug effects? The core idea is that psychedelic drugs interfere with the structural integrity of the ego and thereby reduce its ability to suppress the primary process and support the secondary process Grof, Due in part to the close resemblance between psychedelic effects and primary process phenomena, psychoanalytic theory became the framework of choice during the mid 20th-century boom in psychedelic therapy Sandison, ; Sandison and Whitelaw, ; Cohen, ; Grof, ; Merkur, Psychedelic ego effects, which range from a subtle loosening to a complete dissolution of ego boundaries, were found to be great tools in psychotherapy because of their capacity to perturb ego and allow primary process phenomena to emerge Sandison, , p.

But how do psychedelic drugs disrupt the structure of the ego? Freud hypothesized that the organizational structure of ego rests upon a basic perceptual schematic of the body and its surrounding environment. Continuous correct perception is necessary to maintain ego feeling and ego boundaries. Such barriers would presumably consist of processes limiting the spread of excitation between different functional areas of the brain.

The indications are that LSD, in some manner, breaks down these stimulus barriers of which Freud spoke. Nor is this merely a figure of speech. There is some reason to suspect that integrative mechanisms within the central nervous system CNS which handle inflowing stimuli are no longer able to limit the spread of excitation in the usual ways. We might speculate that LSD allows greater energy exchanges between certain systems than normally occurs, without necessarily raising the general level of excitation of all cortical and subcortical structures.

Klee, , p. Psychedelic drugs, according to Savage and Klee, perturb integrative mechanisms that normally bind and shape endogenous and exogenous excitation into the structure of the ego. From the above analysis of first-wave and second-wave theories I have identified four recurring theoretical features which could potentially serve as unifying principles.

A second feature is the hypothesis that this core brain mechanism can behave pathologically, either in the direction of too much, or too little, constraint imposed on perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self. A third feature is the hypothesis that psychedelic phenomena and symptoms of chronic psychoses share descriptive elements because they both involve situations of relatively unconstrained mental processes.

A fourth feature is the hypothesis that psychedelic drugs have therapeutic utility via their ability to temporarily inhibit these inhibitory brain mechanisms. But how are these inhibitory mechanisms realized in the brain? Klee recognized that his above hypotheses, inspired by psychoanalytic theory and LSD effects, required neurophysiological evidence. What clues have recent investigations uncovered?

A psychedelic drug molecule impacts a neuron by binding to and altering the conformation of receptors on the surface of the neuron Nichols, The receptor interaction most implicated in producing classic psychedelic drug effects is agonist or partial agonist activity at serotonin 5-HT receptor type 2A 5-HT 2A Nichols, Importantly, while the above evidence makes it clear that 5-HT 2A activation is a necessary if not sufficient mediator of the hallmark subjective effects of classic psychedelic drugs, this does not entail that 5-HT 2A activation is the sole neurochemical cause of all subjective effects.

Moreover, most psychedelic drug molecules activate other receptors in addition to 5-HT 2A e. How does psychedelic drug-induced 5-HT 2A receptor agonism change the behavior of the host neuron? Generally, 5-HT 2A activation has a depolarizing effect on the neuron, making it more excitable more likely to fire Andrade, ; Nichols, Importantly, this does not necessarily entail that 5-HT 2A activation will have an overall excitatory effect throughout the brain, particularly if the excitation occurs in inhibitory neurons Andrade, In what ways do temporal oscillations change under psychedelic drugs?

MEG and EEG studies consistently show reductions in oscillatory power across a broad frequency range under ayahuasca Riba et al. Reductions in the power of alpha-band oscillations, localized mainly to parietal and occipital cortex, have been correlated with intensity of subjective visual effects—e. Under LSD, reductions in alpha power still correlated with intensity of subjective visual effects but associated alpha reductions were more widely distributed throughout the brain Carhart-Harris et al.

Furthermore, ego-dissolution effects and mystical-type experiences e. The concept of functional connectivity rests upon fMRI brain imaging observations that reveal temporal correlations of activity occurring in spatially remote regions of the brain which form highly structured patterns brain networks Buckner et al.

Imaging of brains during perceptual or cognitive task performance reveals patterns of functional connectivity known as functional networks ; e. In what ways does brain network connectivity change under psychedelic drugs? Third, brain networks that normally show anticorrelation become active simultaneously under psychedelic drugs.

This situation, which can be described as increased between-network functional connectivity, occurs under psilocybin Carhart-Harris et al. Fourth and finally, the overall repertoire of explored functional connectivity motifs is substantially expanded and its informational dynamics become more diverse and entropic compared with normal waking states Tagliazucchi et al.

Notably, the magnitude of occurrence of the above four neurodynamical themes correlates with subjective intensity of psychedelic effects during the drug session. Furthermore, visual cortex is activated during eyes-closed psychedelic visual imagery de Araujo et al. Taken together, the recently discovered neurophysiological correlates of subjective psychedelic effects present an important puzzle for 21st-century neuroscience. A key clue is that 5-HT 2A receptor agonism leads to desynchronization of oscillatory activity, disintegration of intrinsic integrity in the DMN and related brain networks, and an overall brain dynamic characterized by increased between-network global functional connectivity, expanded signal diversity, and a larger repertoire of structured neurophysiological activation patterns.

Crucially, these characteristic traits of psychedelic brain activity have been correlated with the phenomenological dynamics and intensity of subjective psychedelic effects. How should we understand the growing body of clues emerging from investigations into the neurodynamics of psychedelic effects?

What are the principles that link these thematic patterns of psychedelic brain activity or inactivity to their associated phenomenological effects? Recent theoretical efforts to understand psychedelic drug effects have taken advantage of existing frameworks from cognitive neuroscience designed to track the key neurodynamic principles of human perception, emotion, cognition, and consciousness.

The overall picture that emerges from these efforts shares core principles with filtration and psychoanalytic accounts of the late 19th and early 20th century. Briefly, normal waking perception and cognition are hypothesized to rest upon brain mechanisms which serve to suppress entropy and uncertainty by placing various constraints on perceptual and cognitive systems. The core hypothesis of recent cognitive neuroscience theories of psychedelic effects is that these drugs interfere with the integrity of neurobiological information-processing constraint mechanisms.

The net effect of this is that the range of possibilities in perception, emotion, and cognition is dose-dependently expanded. From this core hypothesis, cognitive neuroscience frameworks are utilized to describe and operationalize the quantitative neurodynamics of key psychedelic phenomena; namely, the diversity of effects across many mental processes, the elements in common with symptoms of psychoses, and the way in which temporarily removing neurobiological constraints is therapeutically beneficial.

This section is organized according to the broad theoretical frameworks informing recent theoretical neuroscience of psychedelic effects: entropic brain theory, integrated information theory , and predictive processing. Their hypothesis states that hallmark psychedelic effects e.

Importantly, EBT points out that these characteristics are consistent with psychedelic phenomenology, e. Entropic Brain Theory further characterizes psychedelic neurodynamics using a neo-psychoanalytic framework proposed in an earlier paper by Carhart-Harris and Friston , p. Importantly, this hypothesis maps onto the subjective phenomenology of psychedelic effects, particularly ego dissolution.

This view, based on Freudian metapsychology, is also consistent with filtration accounts, like those of Bergson and Huxley, who hypothesized that psychedelic drug effects are the result of a pharmacological inhibition of inhibitory brain mechanisms.

In normal waking states, the DMN constrains the activity of its cortical and subcortical nodes and prohibits simultaneous co-activation with TPNs. By interfering with DMN integration, psychedelics permit a larger repertoire of brain activity, a wider variety of explored functional connectivity motifs, co-activation of normally mutually exclusive brain networks, increased levels of between-network functional connectivity, and an overall more diverse set of neural interactions.

Carhart-Harris et al. However, what may be gained in mild depression i. Thus, EBT formulates all four of the theoretical features identified in filtration and psychoanalytic accounts, but does so using 21st-century empirical data plugged into the quantitative concepts of entropy, uncertainty, criticality, and functional connectivity. EBT hints at possible ways to close the gaps in understanding by offering quantitative concepts that link phenomenology to brain activity and pathogenesis to therapeutic mechanisms.

Integrated Information Theory IIT is a general theoretical framework which describes the relationship between consciousness and its physical substrates Oizumi et al. Gallimore formally restates this problem using IIT parameters: brains attempt to optimize the give-and-take dynamic between cause-effect information and cognitive flexibility.

In IIT, a neural system generates cause-effect information when the mechanisms which make up its current state constrain the set of states which could casually precede or follow the current state. In other words, each mechanistic state of the brain: 1 limits the set of past states which could have causally given rise to it, and 2 limits the set of future states which can causally follow from it.

Thus, each current state of the mechanisms within a neural system or subsystem has an associated cause-effect repertoire which specifies a certain amount of cause-effect information as a function of how stringently it constrains the unconstrained state repertoire of all possible system states.

Increasing the entropy within a cause-effect repertoire will in effect constrain the system less stringently as the causal possibilities are expanded in both temporal directions as the system moves closer to its unconstrained repertoire of all possible states. Moreover, increasing the entropy within a cause-effect repertoire equivalently increases the uncertainty associated with its past and future causal interactions.

Using this IIT-based framework, Gallimore argues that, compared with normal waking states, psychedelic brain states exhibit higher entropy, higher cognitive flexibility, but lower cause-effect information Figure 4. Neuroimaging data suggests that human brains exhibit a larger overall repertoire of neurophysiological states under psychedelic drugs, exploring a greater diversity of states in a more random fashion.

The cause-effect repertoire of brain mechanisms thus shifts closer to the unconstrained repertoire of all possible past and future states. Therefore the subjective contents perception and cognition become more diverse, more unusual, and less predictable. This increases flexibility but decreases precision and control as the subjective boundaries which normally demarcate distinct cognitive concepts and perceptual objects dissolve. Gallimore leverages IIT in an attempt unify these phenomena under a formalized framework.

How do psychedelic drugs increase neural entropy? The first modern brain imaging measurements in humans under psilocybin yielded somewhat unexpected results: reductions in oscillatory power MEG and cerebral blood flow fMRI correlated with the intensity of subjective psychedelic effects Carhart-Harris et al.

In their discussion, the authors suggest that their findings, although surprising through the lens of commonly held beliefs about how brain activity maps to subjective phenomenology, may actually be consistent with a theory of brain function known as the free energy principle FEP; Friston, In one model of global brain function based on the free-energy principle Friston, , activity in deep-layer projection neurons encodes top-down inferences about the world.

Speculatively, if deep-layer pyramidal cells were to become hyperexcitable during the psychedelic state, information processing would be biased in the direction of inference—such that implicit models of the world become spontaneously manifest—intruding into consciousness without prior invitation from sensory data.

This could explain many of the subjective effects of psychedelics Muthukumaraswamy et al. What is FEP? FEP is a formulation of a broader conceptual framework emerging in cognitive neuroscience known as predictive processing PP; Clark, PP has links to bayesian brain hypothesis Knill and Pouget, , predictive coding Rao and Ballard, , and earlier theories of perception and cognition MacKay, ; Neisser, ; Gregory, dating back to Helmholtz who was inspired by Kant ; see Swanson, At the turn of the 21st century, the ideas of Helmholtz catalyzed innovations in machine learning Dayan et al.

PP subsumes key elements from these efforts see Clark, to describe a universal principle of brain function captured by the idea of prediction error minimization PEM; Hohwy, What does it mean to say that the brain works to minimize its own prediction error? Higher-level areas of the nervous system i. Crucially, the sets of possible causes must be narrowed in order for the system to settle on an explanation Tenenbaum et al. For example, the brute constraints of space and time act as hyperpriors; e.

Interestingly, PP holds that our perceptions of external objects recruit the same synaptic pathways that enable our capacity for mental imagery, dreaming, and hallucination. How do psychedelic molecules perturb predictive processing? The idea is that psychedelic drugs perturb the learned and innate prior constraints on internal generative models. How does PP tie into filtration theories and psychoanalytic accounts? One objection to this linkage might be that Huxley often describes psychedelic opening of the cerebral reducing valve as revealing more of the world.

At first glance this seems at odds with the above PP account of psychedelic effects, which describes psychedelic drugs causing rampant internal simulations of reality, not revealing more of the external world. However, this apparent tension might be resolved in light of active inference , a key principle of FEP Friston, Active inference shows how internal models do not merely generate top-down inference signals but also shape the sampling and accumulation of bottom-up sensory evidence signals.

This is known as active inference. Psychedelics manifest mind by perturbing prior constraints on internal generative models, thereby expanding the possibilities in our inner world of feelings, thoughts, and mental imagery. The brief speculative remark by Muthukumaraswamy et al.

The PP framework describes a recurrent back-and-forth give-and-take between colliding top-down and bottom-up signals, where internal models serve to shape experience and experience serves to build internal models, so this leaves room for rival PP-based accounts that diverge regarding where exactly the psychedelic drug perturbs the system.

For example, increased top-down activity could be the result of pharmacological hyperactivation of top-down synaptic transmission; yet equally plausible is the hypothesis that increased top-down activity is a compensatory response to pharmacological attenuations or distortions of bottom-up signal. For example, Corlett et al. The issue of what is primary and what is compensatory illustrates the vast possibilities in the hypothesis space of PP-based accounts. While most PP-based accounts point to changes in top-down signaling, even within this hypothesis space there are contrasting conceptions of exactly how psychedelic molecules perturb top-down processing.

Briefly, these differing hypotheses include: 1 hyperactivation or heavier weighting of top-down signaling Muthukumaraswamy et al. Carhart-Harris and Friston argue that the Freudian conception of ego, with its organizing influence over the primary process, is consistent with PP descriptions of higher-level cortical structures predicting and suppressing the excitation in lower levels in the hierarchy i.

In normal adult waking states, networks based in higher-level areas can successfully predict and explain suppress and control the activity of lower level areas. PP posits that the brain explains self-generated stimuli by attributing its causes to a coherent and persisting entity i. Letheby and Gerrans , p. Pink-Hashkes et al.

Categorical predictions that are more detailed, by contrast, will carry less precision and thus potentially generate more prediction error Kwisthout and van Rooij, ; Kwisthout et al. In summary, the current state of PP-based theories of psychedelic effects reveals a divergent mix of heterogeneous ideas and conflicting hypotheses. Do psychedelic molecules perturb top-down feedback signaling, or bottom-up feedforward signaling, or both? Do the subjective phenomenological effects result from direct neuropharmacological changes or compensatory mechanisms responding to pharmacological perturbations?

Predictive processing-based accounts, consistent with EBT and IIT and filtration and psychoanalytic accounts , propose that psychedelic drugs disrupt neural mechanisms priors on internal generative models which normally constrain perception and cognition. Perturbing priors causes subjective phenomenology to present a wider range of experiences with increased risk of perceptual instability and excessive cognitive flexibility. As prior constraints on self and world are loosened, the likelihood of psychosis-like phenomena increases.

At the same time, novel thinking is increased and the brain becomes more malleable and conducive to therapeutic cognitive and behavioral change. The four key features identified in filtration and psychoanalytic accounts from the late 19th and early 20th century continue to operate in 21st-century cognitive neuroscience: 1 psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic diversity of effects because they perturb adaptive mechanisms which normally constrain perception, emotion, cognition, and self-reference, 2 these adaptive mechanisms can develop pathologies rooted in either too much or too little constraint 3 psychedelic effects appear to share elements with psychotic symptoms because both involve weakened constraints 4 psychedelic drugs are therapeutically useful precisely because they offer a way to temporarily inhibit these adaptive constraints.

EBT and IIT describe psychedelic brain dynamics and link them to phenomenological dynamics, while PP describes informational principles and plausible neural information exchanges which might underlie the larger-scale dynamics described by EBT and IIT. In surveying the literature for this review I can confidently conclude that 21st-century psychedelic science has yet to approach a unifying theory linking the diverse range of phenomenological effects with pharmacology and neurophysiology while tying these to clinical efficacy.

However, the historically necessary ingredients for successful theory unification—formalized frameworks and unifying principles Morrison, —seem to be taking shape. Formal models are an integral part of 21st-century neuroscience Forstmann et al. I have also highlighted the fact that all of the accounts reviewed here, from the 19th-century to the 21st-century, propose that psychedelic drugs inhibit neurophysiological constraints in order to produce their diverse phenomenological, psychotomimetic, and therapeutic effects.

Why should we pursue a unified theory of psychedelic drug effects at all? To date, theories of brain function and mind in general have resisted the kind of unification that has occurred in other areas of science Huang, ; Edelman, Indeed, Anderson and Chemero , p. PP and FEP, at the very least, offer a broad explanatory framework that emcompasses a large swath of perceptual and cognitive phenomena Huang, ; Friston, ; Clark, Psychedelic drugs offer a unique way to iteratively develop and test such big-picture explanatory frameworks: these molecules can be used to probe the links between neurochemistry and neural computation across multiple layers of neuroanatomy and phenomenology.

Meeting the challenge of predicting and explaining psychedelic drug effects is the ultimate acid test for any unified theory of brain function. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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London: Harper Publications. Horowitz and C. The Doors of Perception, and Heaven and Hell. James, W. Subjective Effects of Nitrous Oxide. The Principles of Psychology. Johnson, M. Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. As shown in Table 4 , the core themes: cognitive dynamism and energy , and the sub-themes: divergent thinking, hyper - focus, nonconformist , adventurousness, self - acceptance and sublimation , are not highlighted, because they were not listed in the CSV.

We propose these attributes as specific positive aspects of ADHD. Excerpts from the interviews are cited in text, to illustrate how the themes emerged and to give examples of the participants reports in their own words Creswell and Poth Cognitive dynamism as the first core theme conceptualised the ceaseless mental activity that was reported by all the participants. The participants described spontaneous and non-sequential thought processes, flashes of images, as well as episodes of intense mental focus.

Defining sub-themes were divergent thinking, hyper - focus, creativity and curiosity. Divergent thinking DT refers to an ability to generate novel, original or ingenuous ideas, as such, it is a measure of creativity Guilford This reflects in the view of one participant who said:.

The participants descriptions of hyper-focus were akin to a state of flow. Creativity is multifaceted, with numerous expressions and psycho-social influences, but for it to be effective in real-time, it requires originality and ingenuity Piirto Such findings echo in the report of one participant who said:.

All the participants described naturally being curious as a positive aspect of ADHD. Curiosity refers to inquisitiveness, openness to experience, a desire to learn, and it may also be a mechanism that allows people to pursue their ambitions and discover meaning in life Zuss Courage as the second core theme conceptualised the participants reports about living with ADHD, confronting fear and dealing with uncertainly.

This construct includes psychological and moral attributes associated with equity, social justice and human rights Putman Defining sub-themes are nonconformist, adventurousness, bravery, integrity and persistence. All the participants reported being viewed by others as nonconformist. They spoke about always having felt different , like they were outsiders or people resistant to social or cultural modification i.

According to Honneth misrecognition occurred when people did not respect each other, and it caused social tension or conflict. The misrecognition of ADHD as a disability accentuates how labelling or stereotyping can be used by society to judge whether people with ADHD can fit into certain social groups or settings or have access to social opportunities.

But I think also ethnically… the way I grew up had a part of it as well…. From the participants reports, it was apparent that being brave, or bravery, was a positive resource for overcoming the struggle for recognition and individuating.

Individuation is about transcending restrictive social norms and beliefs Jung , by resisting acculturation Maslow , or through self-determination Ryan and Deci The participants seemed to associate bravery with their natural sense of adventurousness , spontaneity and thrill - seeking. One participant said:. I can list in my life having done white water rafting, bungee jumping, hand-glider pilot, riding a rocket ship motorcycle at the age of 60, which I really ought not to be now….

I have done a lot in my life and achieved a lot and experienced a lot…… I would see a lot of that as being quite positive and a lot of that is ADHD drive…. But for the participants in this study, being adventurous was described as fun, while impulsivity and spontaneity were described as the same thing.

The participants said that an action was judged as either impulsive or spontaneous depending on how other people reacted to it. If the reaction of others was negative, then the action or behaviour was viewed as impulsive, but when the reaction was positive, then the action was described as spontaneous or intuitive.

One participant explained:. The participants said that being open about having ADHD made them feel authentic and honest, which are attributes that characterise integrity Carter A hallmark of authentic behaviour and autonomy is intrinsic motivation. It seemed like the participants intrinsic motivation allowed them to maintain a positive sense of self despite disclosing or being open about their disability. This certainly requires courage given the associations of ADHD with poor educational outcomes, criminality, substance misuse, socio-economic disadvantage and so on Bernfort et al.

All the participants described an abundance of energy that they positively attributed to their ADHD. Defining sub-themes are spirit, psychological and physical. Spirit often relates to the soul or chi, which is an omnipresent energy that connects man with nature Puthoff More broadly, spirit relates to a subjective experience that embraces higher aspects of self, sense of purpose and meaning in life Walsh and Vaughan The participants described exuberance as the spirit of ADHD.

All the participants described being distinctly aware of being connected to something much bigger than themselves. Some participants said they wanted to learn how to harness the energy of their ADHD, so that they could direct it at will for productive ends. Assagioli asserted that will typified willers and wilful acts in an empirical and phenomenological sense and, suggesting therefore, that will was a measurable trait.

The participants described will as the drive of ADHD, as one participant said:. The interpretation of will as a drive alludes to a type of behaviour called volition or purposive striving. Volition requires an individual to become energised by a strong desire to achieve something, then to strive relentlessly towards a threshold in which intrinsic motivation transmutes into a physical energy that drives performance and productivity Deci and Vansteenkiste All the participants reported an abundance of physical energy as a positive aspect of their ADHD.

Humanity as the fourth core theme conceptualised the participants reports about their social behaviour. Defining sub-themes are social intelligence, humour, self - acceptance and recognition of feelings. Humphrey argued that social intelligence was creative intellect comprising social awareness, attitude, an ability to initiate and manage relationships, as well as complex social change.

All the participants described an ability to initiate social conversations with relative ease. They also reported having a positive mental attitude, which as a popular ideology, alleged that optimists naturally attract social success. In one study, optimists were found to enjoy a healthier life, because they tended to cope better with stress in comparison to pessimists Conversano et al.

In another study, optimists were found to exhibit trait extroversion and surgency, which are traits also associated with positive well-being Blandon et al. These observations reflect in the report of one participant who said:.

Emotion contagion theory identifies a dynamic and engaging personality as a trait in individuals who succeed at transferring knowledge to others and are generally good at being persuasive in their social interactions Hatfield et al. Persuasive people are contagious according to Gladwell because they exude positive energy.

In large organisations, energy has been studied as a relational concept. In these studies, employees who were energizers tended to interact well with their colleagues, got promoted faster, sparked more innovation and generally performed well at work. Employees who were de - energizers tended to leave colleagues feeling low, bored and sapped of energy Cross et al. This observation echoed in the report of one participant who said:.

The participants described a penchant for humour as being eminent in the lives of people with ADHD. Even when asked what they would miss if their ADHD went away, all the participants said it would be their sense of humour. Research on humour found that it fostered well-being by encouraging tolerance and compassion towards self and others, a sense of identify with humanity and self-acceptance Martin and Kuiper ; Martin The participants described self - acceptance as a positive attribute that demonstrated their willingness to tolerate self despite experiencing ADHD-related deficits and functional impairments.

Self-acceptance is also important for accepting others Linehan All the participants said that their ADHD made them more sensitive than other people, but that this enabled them to recognise feelings in self and be aware of the emotional states of others. This was reflected in the report of one participant who said:. It is possible that the participants in this study would rate high on emotional intelligence EQ Mayer and Salovey But, research in EQ is relatively new, and it remains to be seen how it will report on complex emotional states and present an empirical body of knowledge on emotions.

One participant alluded to the complexity of emotional states when he said:. Resilience, as the fifth core theme, characterised the participants reports about the strategies they used to cope with their ADHD. People who cope well with stress are said to be resilient, because they seem to possess protective strengths that enable them to flourish despite adverse conditions Garmezy ; Segal and Yahraes ; McCraty et al.

Defining sub-themes are self - regulation and sublimation. Self-regulation is a protective strength, but it can demand mental exertion or degrees of self-control that eventually could cause psychological fatigue or ego-depletion , which in turn, would cause self-regulation SR to become ineffective or fail Muraven and Baumeister Saying this, SR is also adaptive, which means that different SR strategies can be acquired, learnt and practised, which can offset the risk of psychological fatigue Murray et al.

Flexibility or adaptability, for instance, could be one such strategy. This was reported by one participant who said:. The model of SR shown in Fig. In this model, cognitive regulation CR and emotion regulation ER are depicted as the building blocks for behaviour regulation BR , which in turn, acts like a feedback mechanism that either reinforces the strategy or signals that it needs to be adjusted or changed.

One participant reported on the importance of finding a balance between over-arousal emotion and boredom cognition , when they said:. Model of self-regulation SR strategies and processes Murray et al. In the SR model in Fig. Strategies to enhance CR such as executive function EF training e. One participant reported that they practised EF exercises and found them useful for enhancing concentration and attention. Other researchers such as Wranik et al. Carver and Scheier studied the role of cognitive reappraisal in SR and found that it was effective for raising awareness about the strengths and limitations of self.

In another study, cognitive reappraisal was reported as an adaptive strategy for regulating emotional responses to events McRae et al. These views reflected in the report of one participant who said:. These patients could not plan simply tasks, make simply decisions or respond appropriately to questions.

Clinical observations like this seem to suggest that emotion rather than cognition helps people gauge what is or is not important to them, before deciding on a course of action. One participant did say that they did not believe that SR strategies only came from cognitive-behavioural interventions, while other participants described strategies like suppression and mindfulness as being most useful. In almost of the stages of mindfulness practice, top-down CR and bottom-up ER strategies coexist Chiesa et al.

De-centring, for instance, is a CR and ER strategies in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy that is used to teach patients how to view their thoughts and feelings as passing events, rather than as real reflections of self or others Schman-Olivier et al. One participant described mindfulness as a useful intervention for SR by stating:. Emotional Freedom Technique EFT is said to be effective in dissipating negative emotions, reducing or eliminating pain, by finger tapping on the energy meridians targeted by traditional acupuncture, while vocalising positive affirmations Feinstein A Delphi consensus poll of an expert panel of psychologists assessed a range of interventions, and they scored 3.

However, this participant said:. T…Emotional Freedom Technique….. All the participants described some type of BR strategy that they used like psycho-education persisting with SR goals like organisational skills, breathing exercises and relaxation techniques.

It was clear, however, that while different strategies could be effective for SR, they all seem to require conscious or active attempts to self-regulate in the moment. These attempts are deliberate and allow for choice, whereas sublimation is an unconscious protective or defence mechanism that is not deliberate or by choice Haan Sublimation is akin to cognitive reappraisal in the sense of being an adaptive mechanism for self-preservation, as such, successful psychoanalytical treatment depends on sublimation.

This process entails bringing repressed desires or wishes into conscious awareness so that they can be sublimated or directed towards more productive ends Freud One participant alluded to this process when they said:. Freud used the terms substitute formations or return of the repressed to describe how repressed desires or wishes in the psyche eventually surface and manifest in various behaviours.

Freud referred to Leonardo da Vinci as a classical case for sublimation, arguing that he sublimated his repressed homosexuality into scientific and artistic inventiveness. These observations clearly associate sublimation with creativity, but the key point is that sublimation fosters psychological health. This came through in the report of one participant who said:. Nietzsche, like Freud, argued that repressed drives eventually find expression in disguised behaviours like religious fanaticism, in which individuals project anger and blame onto others.

In other words, they become ill with resentment Reginster ; Gemes The stigma and discrimination experienced by people with ADHD, or other mental health conditions, can cause resentment Thornicroft et al. Resentment, however, can be sublimated in a positive way. Like one participant said:. This notion came through in one report by a participant who said:. In this way, people were free to enjoy life, felt motivated to pursue their goals and became happier and healthier Reginster ; Gemes Transcendence, as the last core theme, characterised the musical experience of one participant.

Its defining sub-theme is appreciation of beauty and excellence. Appreciation of beauty and excellent ABE is a novel topic of research in positive psychology. It describes a process of noticing talent or beauty in the environment and associated feelings of awe, wonder, elevation and admiration Haidt and Keltner In research about ABE, it has been correlated with openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, absorption and positive affect Shiota et al.

A distinct trait in musicians is said to be ABE. They found that not only did all the musicians have better abilities to self-regulate due to their regular practicing sessions, but that they also experienced the specific emotional responsiveness that is associated with ABE. The professional musicians also derived additional benefits from the emotional bonds they had with their colleagues.

These findings resonated with the report of one participant who said:. However, this method also depends heavily on the participants use of language and ability to describe their views, perceptions and experiences in an articulate, expressive and reflective manner Creswell and Poth Identifying and selecting participants capable of doing this can be challenging, but we managed to recruit suitable participants by using purposive sampling.

Our sample size was relatively small, and the inclusion of females with ADHD may have offered different perspectives. However, small sample sizes are not unusual in phenomenological research. While it does mean that generalising the findings of this study is not easy to do, we also argue that the positive aspects we found are relevant to other adults with ADHD regardless of sample size, age, gender or ethnicity.

In qualitative research, generalising findings is not the aim; instead, the aim is to explore in depth and understand personal knowledge and lived experience Creswell and Poth Besides other publications, including one international study reported on similar positive aspects associated with ADHD Hallowell and Ratey ; White and Shah , ; Mahdi et al. This does strengthen the reliability and transferability of our findings. Six core themes cognitive dynamism, courage, energy, humanity, resilience and transcendence , further defined by 19 sub-themes, constituted the main findings of this study.

The core themes— cognitive dynamism and energy —and sub-themes— divergent thinking, hyper - focus, nonconformist , adventurousness, self - acceptance and sublimation —were not catalogued in the CSV. We proposed these attributes as specific positive aspects of ADHD. Some participants described how they used, regulated or sublimated their energy into productive ends, while others expressed a desire to learn how to do this.

Perhaps, it is time to reconsider vital energy. In positive psychology, vital energy is associated with behavioural traits like zest and vigour, which contain positively toned states that support mental health and well-being Peterson and Seligman Garland-Thompson argued for sociocultural ideas and norms about disability to be reshaped. This is a study that reaches out to people with lived experience of ADHD: service users, patients, family members, carers, partners , to say that not all symptoms of ADHD are maleficent.

Recovery, high functionality and flourishing with ADHD are possible. Too often people with lived experience hear about ADHD in relation to deficits, functional impairments and associations with substance misuse, criminality or other disadvantages on almost every level of life school, work, relationships. Perhaps other researchers should replicate this study or undertake other research to document attributes that can promote or sustain well-being and flourishing in ADHD life.

This emerging field of ADHD research is much needed. Findings from such research may appeal to practitioners who utilise cognitive-behavioural therapy, coaching or other psychological or behavioural interventions to treat or support people with ADHD. This study affirms the positive human qualities, assets and attributes in ADHD that can promote and sustain high functioning and flourishing.

Psychol Med 37 1 — Article PubMed Google Scholar. Assagioli R The act of will. Penguin Books, New York. Google Scholar. Babbie ER Survey research methods. Wadsworth, Belmont. Becker HS Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. The Free Press, New York. Acta Paediatr 97 2 — Dev Psychol — Br Dent J — Springer, New York. Book Google Scholar. Clin Psychol Rev — Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health — Cooper JM The unity of virtue. Soc Philos Policy 15 01 — Article Google Scholar.

Sage, Thousand Oaks. Cross R, Parker A The hidden power of social networks: understanding how work really gets done in organizations. Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Sloane Manag Rev 44 4 Cross R, Gray P, Gerbasi A, Assimakopoulos D Building engagement from the ground up: how top organizations leverage networks to drive employee engagement. Org Dyn — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 5— Pantheon Books, New York. Deci EL, Vansteenkiste M Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: understanding human development in positive psychology.

Ricerche di Psicologia — J Psychol 3 — Neuropsychiatry London 3 5 — Feinstein D Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders: evidence of efficacy. Rev Gen Psychol — Fitzgerald M Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder link to genius, Thursday, 4 February Accessed 1 May Disabil Soc 32 4 —

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