Pocket notebook series torrent pediatrics

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Pages·· MB·13, Downloads·New! This book is a concise learning guide dedicated to the full scope of pediatric history-taking. Titles in the series include: Core Clinical Cases in Paediatrics. Pocket Emergency Paediatric Care: A Practical Guide to the Diagnosis and Management of.

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pocket notebook series torrent pediatrics

Pages·· MB·13, Downloads·New! This book is a concise learning guide dedicated to the full scope of pediatric history-taking. The flagship volume in the popular Pocket Notebook Series, Pocket Medicine, 7th Edition, is a must-have resource for fast answers to. This volume in the popular Pocket Notebook series provides a concise and plus emergencies related to the environment, pediatrics. DEATH GRIPS GOVERNMENT PLATES MIXTAPE TORRENT Remotely tech-focused found. The to a local. TightVNC and how an the.

Thank you very much! Excellent lecture, once more a complex topic made easy. It ties well physiology with pathophysiology with diagnosis and treatment. Excellent lecture: complete, comprehensive, clear and highlights well the difference between: type 1 and type 2, DKA and HNNK and adult vs children.

El doctor explica de manera muy clara los temas. I now feel more comfortable with recognising inborn errors of metabolism. It's a complex topic and once more it is made understandable and memorable. This is a difficult topic and it was made very clear, especially the mnemonics. This is the best overview of glucose metabolism that I have ever seen.

Usually, endocrinology is not so well-taught. That is not the case here. Endocrinology is often an obscure or not-well explained topic. Usually Tanner stages are a bit "dry" to learn. But with a teacher like you: much better!

I also learned a new disease which is cool. Excellent series of lectures on short stature overall. Important topic in pediatrics. Clear explanations. Good lecture, I liked the mentions of the different diseases and etiologies. It clarifies the whole topic. An important disease in pediatrics. Very clear about treatment options. Important topic in paediatrics.

I feel more confident to recognise this disease in children. Excellent lecture, it is sometimes difficult to remember and differentiate one another. Here, a lot of care has been made to help us to differentiate CD and UC. It shows. Excellent lecture on an important topic in pediatrics, well explained, easy to remember. Just my colleague, I did not know about the skin manifestation. Good lecture, very useful to know how constipation is treated in the US. There are some differences with my local recommendations Europe.

Great lecture for one of THE pediatric topics. It addresses all the important aspects of the topic. Good lecture, I would have appreciated more details on the differential diagnosis. Very clear explanations, though! Good summary of the disease. Easy to remember. Good to have the risk-factors! Nice lecture! It is actually helping me a lot! Alverson is wonderful! I really enjoyed this brief but informative lecture! Thank you!! Very interesting and engaged lecturer who makes a complicated illness easier to understand!

I love the way the topics are explained in detail, how I am given an idea of what to expect from the specific lecture before the lecture starts going into detail Not a typical pediatric topic, however very important topic as it is a diagnosis that must be considered in children. It expanded my list of differential diagnoses. We had such a case and now I understand better the surgery he's been having. Very clear explanations.

Helps to understand the topic very much. Important topic for neonatal medicine. All the information to suspect the disease is contained within the lecture. Well-explained, clear, easy to remember. Important complication of oligohydramnios! I particularly liked the differential diagnosis. I would have preferred to see them organised by ethology infectious, etc.

I understand the concept but I think it's worth more details. That being said excellent lecture. This topic in pediatrics does deserve a series of lecture for its multi-systemic injuries. One of the typical "pediatric" disease. Also hits multiple systems. It's good that there are several lectures dedicated to it.

I think it's a good overview of eating disorders and is good enough for screening. However, for this topic I would have liked it to be deeper because it's a psychiatric problem. Very important topic. I particularly liked to hear your opinion about Flumazenil. A topic which is not often enough talked about in pediatrics. Very common, though. I deal with suicidality in adolescents quite often in the pediatric ER. So this is a very useful lecture with some new information for me.

Very clear differential physiopathology and differential diagnosis. It's a topic which is not typically pediatric, so it's very good to hear about it. Good overview of the disease. Where I live it's less common, but still necessary to know about it. Good overview of the most important information to know how to recognise and treat the disease. Excellent summary with interesting details regarding the Pap smear. Also, good descriptions for the clinical aspects.

It really clarifies a topic which was not clear for me before. Now I have a clear concept of it in my head. I particularly appreciated the explanation of the pathophysiology which helps a lot to understand the symptoms of the disease. This lecture gives clear ideas about the etiology, diagnosis, risk factors and the treatment. The bar is set high and it is passed once again. Especially knowing the teacher is not a gynaecologist.

Excellent overview of the different contraceptives and their advantages and disadvantages. Simple structure but effective for clarity and repetition. Once again the view from afar gives a clearer understanding of the whole topic. What I did not understand are the indication for Beta-blockers, Digoxin and Flecainide. I understand the comment of the previous student. However, I think the goal of these lectures is to give the appropriate knowledge to use as a resident.

It's not really important to know more details about it. When a patient has a tachycardia, it's important to know if it's physiologic or pathologic and the cause of it. So the lecture helps to determine the physical origin which helps to point to the cause. These are the best explanations regarding bradycardia that I heard of. I would have liked to hear more about other drugs that could cause bradycardia though.

That being said, I think that now I cannot forget the different blocks. So thank you very much! Also cool that the case of neonatal bradycardia is talked about. I would have liked an explanation on why the pain is relieved when the patient is leaning forward in pericarditis. I liked the emphasis on the overlap between myocarditis and pericarditis. I would have liked to see the epidemiology and mortality but the info concerning the ethology and clinical presentation is enough to raise the suspicion of myocarditis in a sick child.

I particularly appreciated to have the epidemiology and the clinical differences between the different organisms. This lecture made once again a complex topic seems a simpler one. I understand the teacher removes as many numbers as possible and I appreciate it. However, I would have like for this chapter a bit more statistics regarding prevalence.

I think it's an excellent lecture. However, I do agree with another member, I would have liked to see for these diseases the prevalence number of the diseases. Otherwise I think the relevant information to think about the disease is in the lecture. I know I'm keeping saying "excellent lectures". That's the way I feel I about them. I did not know the frequency in the general population was so high.

The teacher's high-level perspective and conceptualisation helps a lot for the mental representation and the understanding of the phenomenon. Great lecture! As usual. This lecture helped me a lot to improve my understanding of the congenital heart problems in general.

The explanations on the surgeries are top notch and on the treatment as well. Excellent lecture as usual, I never heard of this disease before, so it expanded my catalogue of diseases. Great lecture as usual. The teacher succeeds in simplifying a complex topic for the practicing generalist pediatrician. Great content and to the point. It focuses on the common diseases and starts with pathophysiology and ends with management. Es muy genial. Excellent overview for the practicing resident who wants to be able to diagnose CNS tumors.

Explains many relevant findings to look for during the clinical exam. Best lecture I have had on the topic which is often explained by specialists with too much details and not comprehensive enough. Very easy to understand and remember the symptoms and management. Short lecture but excellent as it is presented in a way that is very easy to remember presentation, frequency.

It made me more confident to identify the newborns at risk and the possible differential diagnoses. Another great lecture. I learned a lot regarding the complications of gestational diabetes. Before this lecture I only knew that it would make a big baby and that they were at risk for hypoglycaemia. Thanks a lot! I feel more confident to understand the complications around prematurity. Excellent lecture as usual, what I appreciated the most is the way the information is summarised and the overview of organ systems affected by prematurity.

Excellent lecture and explanations regarding the abnormalities that are looked for in a newborn. Excellent lecture as usual on a very important topic. I particularly liked that TTN was included in this lecture. Excellent lecture as usual: clear explanations, good pictures, interesting remarks regarding therapy. I learned a lot regarding the syndromes associated with hemangiomas and the different types of hemangiomas. Excellent lecture, I feel more confident to identify the disease and to differentiate it from other rashes.

It is a very important topic for our medical career, and you helped us a lot. Thank you very much. HIV is a topic that is a difficult topic because of the nature of the disease and its consequences. I liked how the topic was delivered and the emphasis on awareness, information and a pragmatic approach. Very comprehensive. I particularly liked the differences between adult and pediatric presentations, also the different courses of the disease.

I particularly liked the remarks on Lyme disease as I live in Europe. I would have liked more comments regarding the bacteria carrying the disease B. I particularly liked the remarks concerning the antibiotic selection and the differential diagnosis. I particularly liked the remarks concerning the specific populations and the bacteria they're most concerned with.

I particularly liked the remarks concerning the taste of penicillin and the clear explanation concerning the Jones criteria. I particularly liked the explanation of the management which makes it very clear in a stepwise fashion. I particularly liked that the teacher focussed on the most common etiologies in this instance. Clear explanations as usual. I particularly liked the conclusion at the end in the shape of "Take home messages". I've seen several preseptal cellulitis in children but the attendings could never explain this disease as well as it has been done in this lecture.

Thumbs up! I particularly liked the Nigrovic Rules and the considerations regarding the long-term complications. I particularly liked the differences regarding the age with the key features highlighted and the comments regarding the CSF values.

Crystal-clear on all levels. It gives me the confidence to have an informed opinion on Pertussis next time it comes in the differential diagnosis. Really helps to dispel all the myths around M. It does really seems like management is going to change in the upcoming years regarding this disease. Excellent lecture as usual from a master teacher. The most important points about management are highlighted. Otherwise, I particularly liked the part about which vaccinations, why they are preventing pneumonia.

Very well stressed I think. I'm going to use this when discussing with parents. One of the best lecture, along those on Asthma and bronchiolitis. Tons of pearls and clear explanations for decision-making for the practicing clinicians. I particularly liked the emphasis on the differential diagnostic, the remarks regarding the humidity and cold and the modality of the treatment. Also the signs that the child is sufficiently treated. Excellent lecture, I particularly liked the recommandation to avoid labs and blood cultures, a good reminder in a "less is more" approach.

I particularly appreciated the emphasis on the clinical presentation and the radiological finding. Excellent lecture with emphasis on most important clinical signs and clear categorization regarding management. Clinical appearance, differential diagnosis, treatments, clinical pearls. This lecture contains the relevant and practical information.

Excellent overview of the different types of the disease. It allows to wrap one's understanding around the types. Crystal clear and focused on the most important aspect for a pediatrics resident. I also liked that Dr. Alverson expanded on the secondary effects of steroids.

I liked the fact that the teacher focussed on the most important differential diagnosis and the criteria between tubular and glomeural causes were clear. Nephrology is a topic that is often obscured by the teachers in this field I met. This is not the case in this lecture.

Let there be light ;. Great lecture. Everything is great about this lecture: the questions and the reasons them, the differential diagnosis, the labs and imaging. Explanations are clear and after that lecture I feel more confident to diagnose possible causes of hematuria.

It's very useful for the differential diagnosis. Very clear differences between the two conditions. I enjoyed the overview and the clear explanations of the different diseases. I would have liked more details concerning the clinical exam. However this lecture does serve the purpose of giving the student a clear view of the most common paediatric diseases.

As usual, Dr. Alverson is able to bring to the lecture the most relevant elements needed for the daily practice. Excellent lecture, clear and I always appreciate when the teacher's experience gets mixed in with the lecture. Also, advice to families are well-structured, easy to remember. Very good explanation of the steps and mindset to have in case of seizures. Clear explanation of the 3 anti-seizure medication.

It's the first time I hear that epilepsy is an exclusion diagnosis but it makes sense. It's better clinical reasoning in this way. Clear classification between small, large and tension. Clear risk factors of spontaneous PNE. All in all, I learned new things to appropriately diagnose and manage PNE. Very good lecture. This allowed me to transfer my knowledge from the adult medicine to pediatrics regarding PE.

However, I would have liked more info regarding the link with DVT and the clinical aspects of PE in children like clinical cases maybe and also a part about management. That being said I do understand it is not a typical pediatrics disease as it can be in adult medicine. One of the best lecture.

It makes many things clear. However, I feel there is one part that is missing: the compensation of fluid loss based on the estimated dehydration state. Everything else is great and much better info that I encountered before. Very clear explanation of how the lab values change according to the level of dehydration. I was not aware until today about this controversy. I am not sure all of my colleagues are aware of it either.

I particularly liked all the comments about the antibiotics and the duration of antibiotherapy in children. However, I would have liked to see the different sensitivities and specifities per analysis leuco-esterase, blood, etc. All in all, I learned new things, thanks! This is one of the best lecture from Dr. Alverson, along the ones such as Asthma and bronchiolitis.

It is very well explained and also contains clinical pearls that I'm quite sure my colleagues are not aware of. This lecture will help me to better diagnose this disease and better explain it to parents. I'm looking forward to use this knowledge in real life. Great explanation of key concepts, classification and management. Makes it much easier to remember. Good overview of vomiting and diarrhoea with the definitions, etiologies and the most frequent diagnoses.

Good explanation of the questions to ask to the parents. Good overview of diarrhoea with the definitions, etiologies and the most frequent diagnoses. I also like that lecturer explain things in comment. Overall good-looking doctor that I can see is experienced. The essential information, well structured and presented. It will help me with the parents to provide better advice.

Concise, informative, clear. Perfect lecture for a resident in the emergency hospital setting. As usual: clear, concise and comprehensive. I put 4 stars, because contrary to lectures about Asthma or Bronchiolitis, I felt that the experience of the teacher did not enrich this lecture as much as it did in the previous above. Otherwise, it is still top-notch learning material.

Another great lecture, where all the following are covered: - Myths: oxygen, etc. I learned tons. It shows that the instructor masters the topic and is able to give a clear and easy-to-understand picture. I now feel much more confident for these situations and more able to integrate the local guidelines now that I understand better the general concepts.

High yield facts, great for closed book examinations. Loved the bonus mnemonic! Thank you for your work! Excellent lecture, thank you very much! I particularly liked the parts where you share your personal experience and opinion: the glue, suturing and the sedation parts. Clear and concise as usual. All your lectures are excellent and it shows that you deeply care for children. I'm reviewing this one in particular because this is a difficult topic and I think you excelled in the choice of topics, the tone and advice for young paediatricians.

I'm talking about the whole "child abuse and neglect" lectures. I'm going to review more. Based on our terms and conditions it is not possible to create a Lecturio account without an email address. Lecturio requires a valid email address in order to inform you about important changes and updates e. Got it! Start Now. Toggle navigation. To Your Curriculum. Login Start Now. Home Pediatrics. Pediatrics by Brian Alverson, MD, Hetal Verma, MD Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on the integral diagnosis and management of illnesses that affect newborns, infants, young children, preteens, and adolescents until the age of 18 years.

Course Details. Videos Duration h Quiz questions Concept Pages Get Premium. You're currently in preview mode. Create your free account to save your progress and access more questions. Chronic Apophyseal Injury. The apophysis is a secondary ossification center found on non-weight-bearing segments of bones. It is the site of ligament or tendon insertion and is involved in the peripheral growth of bones.

These secondary growth centers are generally open during childhood and do not close until early adulthood. Chronic apophyseal injury traction apophysitis almost always happens in adolescent athletes during periods of growth. Types of chronic apophyseal injury include Sever disease posterior calcaneal apophysitis , Osgood-Schlatter disease tibial tuberosity apophysitis , little league elbow medial epicondyle apophysitis , and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome inferior patella apophysitis.

Diagnosis is generally made clinically. Chronic apophyseal injuries are generally treated with a conservative approach and rarely require surgical intervention. Pediatric gastrointestinal abnormalities. In the pediatric population, imaging often plays a critical diagnostic role, especially in diagnosing congenital anomalies. In children, CT scans are avoided if at all possible due to the high risk of radiation exposure.

In addition, both CT and especially MRI require children to hold still for significant periods of time and often require sedation to complete the study. For these reasons, plain radiography often with contrast , fluoroscopy, and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice for most suspected cases involving GI pathology. Some conditions that can be diagnosed using imaging include hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, necrotizing enterocolitis, midgut malrotation with or without volvulus, intestinal atresia intussusception, appendicitis, Hirschsprung disease, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and obstructions of the biliary tree.

Pediatric chest abnormalities. Chest abnormalities are a common presenting pathology of the pediatric population. Imaging modalities aid in differentiating the causes of respiratory distress in infants and finding the underlying infectious, traumatic, or congenital disorder. Computed tomography CT is a useful adjunctive modality in the pediatric population when conventional radiography fails to adequately characterize pathology.

Given the common occurrence with many cardiac or vascular anomalies, specific protocols are necessary to highlight potentially abnormal anatomical structures. Pediatric chest imaging is a multimodality process at most centers used to help answer clinical questions and adequately care for individuals. Congenital infections are acquired in utero or during passage through the birth canal at birth and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality for the infant.

The foot is the terminal portion of the lower limb, whose primary function is to bear weight and facilitate locomotion. The foot comprises 26 bones, including the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The bones of the foot form longitudinal and transverse arches and are supported by various muscles, ligaments, and tendons that allow for flexibility as well as dynamic and static support.

The foot has 3 primary arches and multiple ligaments that are essential to its structure. The arches are important in absorbing weight during standing, walking, and running and the ability to adapt to uneven terrain during locomotion. Cholestasis in Neonates and Young Infants.

Cholestasis in neonates and young infants is conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the 1st 3 months of life due to impaired bile excretion. Biliary tract malformations involving the gallbladder and bile duct are grouped into cystic and noncystic obliterative cholangiopathies, the most common of which is biliary atresia.

Less common causes include the genetic Alagille syndrome, infectious causes, and metabolic disorders. Clinical presentation is with obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and MRCP are useful diagnostic tools, and a prenatal diagnosis is sometimes made with ultrasonography.

Cystic causes frequently require surgery to correct the defect and allow for normal child growth. Liver transplantation may be needed in cases of biliary atresia with portal hypertension. Liver and Biliary Tract Imaging.

The hepatobiliary system is composed of the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts within the liver and external to the liver. The liver produces bile, which is a fluid made of cholesterol, phospholipids, conjugated bilirubin, bile salts, electrolytes, and water. Bile, which assists in digestion and helps eliminate waste products, is stored in the gallbladder.

The hepatobiliary system can be affected by infections, cysts, solid masses, ischemia, and mechanical flow obstruction, which mandate the presence of reliable imaging tests to determine the etiology. The methods that evaluate structural changes in the liver and biliary tract include ultrasonography, CT scan, and MRI including magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Additionally, cholescintigraphy, a functional imaging study, helps identify gallbladder pathology by tracking the biliary pathway.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas NHLs are a diverse group of hematologic malignancies that are clonal proliferative disorders of mature or progenitor B cells, T cells, or natural killer NK cells. Most pediatric cases are aggressive and high-grade but curable ; in adults, low-grade subtypes are more common. Like Hodgkin lymphoma, which has distinct pathologic features and treatments, NHL often presents with constitutional signs of fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Clinical features include lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, but some individuals present with extranodal involvement and abnormal lab findings. B-cell NHLs include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma. T-cell NHLs include adult T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides. Diagnosis is made by lymph node biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, or both.

Management is with chemotherapy or targeted drugs. Radiation therapy is used in adults but not in children, and stem cell transplantation is used for patients with aggressive disease. Glycogen Storage Disorders. Glycogen storage disorders GSDs are genetic defects leading to disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. The disorders are caused by pathogenic variants in genes that affect enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown. Presentations vary from being fatal in the neonatal period to having their initial presentation with symptoms in adulthood.

Diagnosis is clinical; detection of glycogen in tissues is by biopsy and confirmed by DNA analysis. Management aims to treat or avoid hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia HLD , and lactic acidosis. No cure is currently available, but genetic therapies are being tested. Fatty Acid Metabolism. Fatty acid metabolism includes the processes of either breaking down fatty acids to generate energy catabolic or creating fatty acids for storage or use anabolic. Besides being a source of energy, fatty acids can also be utilized for cellular membranes or signaling molecules.

Synthesis and beta oxidation are almost the reverse of each other, and special reactions are required for variations unsaturated fatty acids, very-long-chain fatty acids VLCFAs. Synthesis occurs in the cell cytoplasm, while oxidation occurs in mitochondria. Shuttling across membranes within a cell requires additional processes, such as the citrate and carnitine shuttles. In certain physiologic states, an increase in fatty acid oxidation can lead to the production of ketone bodies, which can also be utilized as an energy source, particularly in the brain and muscles.

Fatty Acids and Lipids. Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic organic molecules, which include fats, oils, sterols, and waxes. Eicosanoids are a family of cell-signaling molecules with important physiologic properties derived from the fatty acid, arachadonic acid.

In addition, combining fatty acids with different bases, including glycerol, phosphate, and shingosine, results in different lipids with varied functions within the human body. Glycerolipids triacylglycerols are important for energy storage and thermal insulation.

Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are essential constituents of cellular plasma membranes. Another group of lipids is based off of isoprenoids, which are the building blocks of sterols such as cholesterol. Altered levels of lipids both an overabundance or deficiency can result in many potential disease processes. Disorders of Fatty Acid Metabolism. Fatty acid oxidation disorders FAODs are a group of genetic conditions caused by disruptions in beta-oxidation or the carnitine transport pathway.

These disruptions lead to an inability to metabolize fatty acids. All FAOD types are autosomal recessive. Because of the inability of the body to break down fatty acids, these fats accumulate in the liver and other internal organs. The clinical presentations of each disorder vary, but they commonly include hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy, seizures, myopathy, and liver dysfunction.

Screening of newborns can detect these diseases, and DNA sequencing is usually performed to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes dietary changes or substrate supplementation. Tachyarrhythmia may or may not be accompanied by symptoms of hemodynamic change.

Pathologic tachyarrhythmias resulting in hemodynamic instability can be caused by intrinsic cardiac abnormalities, systemic diseases, or medication toxicity. Supraventricular arrhythmias are called narrow-complex tachycardias and originate in the sinoatrial SA node, atrial myocardium, or atrioventricular AV node.

Diagnosis is made by physical exam and ECG. Management is directed toward the type of tachyarrhythmia present and its underlying cause. Development of the Abdominal Organs. The abdominal organs are derived primarily from endoderm, which forms the primitive gut tube. The gut tube is divided into 3 regions: foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut gives rise to the lining of the GI tract from the esophagus to the upper duodenum, as well as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The midgut gives rise to the GI tract lining between the midduodenum and midtransverse colon.

The hindgut gives rise to the GI tract lining from the midtransverse colon through the upper anal canal. The mesoderm gives rise to the muscles of the GI tract wall, connective tissue including the mesenteries and omenta , and the vasculature. The ectoderm gives rise to the nerve tissue and the lining of the lower anal canal.

Anterior Abdominal Wall. The anterior abdominal wall is anatomically delineated as a hexagonal area defined superiorly by the xiphoid process, laterally by the midaxillary lines, and inferiorly by the pubic symphysis. From the superficial to deep order, the anterior abdominal wall consists of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, transversalis fascia, and peritoneum. The lateral abdominal muscles include the external and internal obliques and the transversus abdominis.

Anterior abdominal muscles include the rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscles. The abdominal wall is primarily supplied by epigastric arteries and innervated by thoracoabdominal nerves. Urinary Tract. The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. The bladder acts as a reservoir for urine until micturition is appropriate. Regulation of micturition relies on the CNS and the spinal cord. Sickle Cell Disease. Sickle cell disease SCD is a group of genetic disorders in which an abnormal Hb molecule HbS transforms RBCs into sickle-shaped cells, resulting in chronic anemia, vasoocclusive episodes, pain, and organ damage.

Sickle cell trait, which is the heterozygous condition, is the only 1 of the group that is generally benign and rarely associated with serious SCD-like complications. Triggers such as stress and hypoxia can induce or worsen the sickling of RBCs. Individuals with SCD are susceptible to infection, infarction of various organs, and bone marrow aplasia; lung involvement in acute chest syndrome can be rapidly fatal.

Sickle cells can usually be seen on the peripheral blood smear, but Hb electrophoresis is needed for diagnosis. The management of painful episodes consists of IV fluids and analgesics, and in severe episodes, exchange transfusions may be required.

Survival is improved by vaccination against bacterial infections, prophylactic antibiotics, and aggressive treatment of infections. Anatomy of the Heart. The heart is a 4-chambered muscular pump made primarily of cardiac muscle tissue. The heart is divided into 4 chambers: 2 upper chambers for receiving blood from the great vessels, known as the right and left atria, and 2 stronger lower chambers, known as the right and left ventricles, which pump blood throughout the body.

Blood flows through the heart in 1 direction, moving from the right side of the heart, through the lungs, and then returning to the left side of the heart, where it is pumped out to the rest of the body. As blood moves through the heart, 4 important valves prevent backflow. The heart muscle itself is supplied by the coronary arteries. The heart also has its own conduction system, triggering its own rhythmic contractions. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA , formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by inflammation of 1 or more joints and is the most common pediatric rheumatic disease.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is classified according to its clinical presentation, and diagnosis is made with examination findings as well as confirmatory lab testing showing evidence of inflammation and characteristic X-ray findings. Treatment is directed at preventing loss of function and controlling or limiting joint damage, with a variable prognosis depending on the type.

Nephritic Syndrome. Nephritic syndrome is a broad category of glomerular diseases characterized by glomerular hematuria, variable loss of renal function, and hypertension. The clinical presentations of nephritic syndrome are highly varied, from asymptomatic with urinary abnormalities to life-threatening critical illness. Diagnosis is suggested by hematuria, mild-to-moderate proteinuria, and certain serologies e. Management varies as widely as the clinical presentations, from watchful waiting in mild cases to immunosuppression and plasmapheresis in aggressive disease.

Nephrotic Syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. The primary etiologies of nephrotic syndrome are minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Other frequently observed clinical findings are hyperlipidemia and thrombotic disease.

Diagnosis is suggested by the clinical findings, and kidney biopsy is necessary in most cases. Management varies with the etiology and usually involves glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressant drugs. Renal Tubular Acidosis. Diagnosis is primarily through the history and laboratory analysis, including measurement of serum and urine anion gaps.

Treatment involves the correction of chronic metabolic acidosis with alkali to prevent its long-term catabolic effects on bone and muscles, as well as addressing any underlying causes leading to the RTA. Breastfeeding is often the primary source of nutrition for the newborn. During pregnancy, hormonal stimulation causes the number and size of mammary glands in the breast to significantly increase. After delivery, prolactin stimulates milk production, while oxytocin stimulates milk expulsion through the lactiferous ducts, where it is sucked out through the nipple by the infant.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for the mother and baby, including a decreased risk of infections, GI distress, and atopic disease for the infant; and a decreased risk of anemia, cardiovascular disease, and breast and ovarian cancer for the mother. True contraindications to breastfeeding exist but are quite rare. Important clinical conditions associated with breastfeeding include engorgement, mastitis, galactocele, breast abscess, and infant jaundice.

The Febrile Baby. Fever is defined as a higher-than-normal body temperature. It is a common symptom in the pediatric population as an isolated symptom or accompanied by other findings that can help narrow the differential diagnosis. In neonates and very young infants, the clinical presentation lacks specificity, so more diagnostic aids are deployed to rule out severe bacterial infection SBI and to begin treatment according to age and clinical evolution.

Thoracic Trauma in Children. Chest trauma rarely occurs in isolation and is often associated with polytrauma. The 2 major mechanisms involve blunt and penetrating forces. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, flail chest, and lung contusions are the most common injuries. Treatment of affected children is very similar to that of adults, but unique pediatric pathoanatomy dictates important differences in approach and management. Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci.

These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus aureus is the most virulent species; S. Infection can cause a wide array of disease, including cellulitis, abscesses, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and medical device infections. Toxins formed by S. Antibiotic management varies based on the type of infection, severity, and sensitivity data. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine.

As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. The kidneys also play a major role in homeostatic processes, including electrolyte concentration, blood pressure, and acid—base regulation.

Grossly, they consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Microscopic functional units known as nephrons filter the blood through a structure called the glomerulus, and this filtrate is then modified and concentrated as it moves through a complex tubular system. The renal arteries supply the kidneys via a central opening, known as the renal hilum, on its medial side; large renal veins empty directly into the vena cava.

Child and Adolescent Care. Child and adolescent care is the area of healthcare dedicated to individuals who are beyond the immediate neonatal age through adulthood. These individuals do not present a uniform group, but are a series of patient populations, each with evolving healthcare needs both preventive and pathologic unique to them. Appropriate care aims to ensure optimal overall health to promote the physical, emotional, and social well-being of these often-challenging populations.

Primary care physicians are usually responsible for child and adolescent care. Well-child visits are scheduled yearly for this purpose. These visits are an opportunity to obtain a detailed clinical history, monitor physiologic and psychologic development, assess growth parameters, and perform a thorough physical examination.

Age-specific screenings, counseling, and vaccinations should also be completed at these times. The testicles, also known as the testes or the male gonads, are a pair of egg-shaped glands suspended within the scrotum. The testicles have multiple layers: an outer tunica vaginalis, an intermediate tunica albuginea, and an innermost tunica vasculosa.

The testicles are composed of testicular lobules contain interstitial tissue and seminiferous tubules produce spermatozoa. Blood supply to the testicles is primarily provided by the testicular artery. Venous drainage is through testicular veins.

Non-insulinotropic Diabetes Medications. Non-insulinotropic diabetes medications are used to treat type 2 diabetes by methods other than increasing insulin secretion. This group of medications includes the biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium—glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors, and amylin analogs. Mechanisms of action vary, but they can include increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity, reducing glucagon release, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, slowing glucose absorption, and increasing satiety.

Metformin is the initial medication of choice; others may be used as an alternative monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy. Most of these medications are not associated with severe hypoglycemia, except for amylin analogs or when medications are used in conjunction with other hypoglycemic agents. Insulinotropic Diabetes Medications. Insulinotropic diabetes medications treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing insulin secretion, which results in decreased glucose levels.

The group of medications includes sulfonylureas, meglitinides, glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 receptor agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors. The agents are usually used in combination with other therapies for diabetes management. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides are associated with weight gain, while GLP-1 agonists may provide the added benefit of weight loss. Other side effects vary between the drug classes.

None of the medications should be used in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis. Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance.

There are several forms of insulin, and they differ in their time of onset, peak effect, and duration. Insulin can be classified as fast acting, short acting, intermediate acting, or long acting. A combination of classes can be used to maintain glucose control throughout the day. Common adverse effects include hypoglycemia, weight gain after initiation of an insulin regimen, and local injection site changes.

Infant care. A physician can greatly impact the quality of this care during the regularly scheduled outpatient visits, also known as well-child visits. Routine visits should be scheduled at regular intervals, with additional visits for acute concerns. The physician should conduct a history and physical examination; assess growth, development, and nutritional status; encourage administration of vaccinations; and provide anticipatory guidance and counseling to parents or caregivers, making sure to address any questions and concerns and to foster optimal development and support.

Hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal contraceptives HCs contain synthetic analogs of the reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone, which may be used either in combination or in progestin-only formulations for contraception. These formulations act synergistically to produce antiovulatory effects and can also affect the endometrial lining typically decreasing bleeding and pain associated with menstruation , which is why they are also used to treat a variety of gynecologic issues.

Available formulations include oral contraceptive pills combined and progestin-only , transdermal patches, vaginal rings, progestin injections, subdermal implants, and intrauterine devices. Common adverse effects include nausea, headaches, mood changes, and irregular bleeding.

Importantly, estrogens increase the risk of venous thromboembolism VTE and are contraindicated in individuals at risk for VTE. Other important contraindications include pregnancy, liver disease, and breast cancer. Typical GBS is characterized by acute monophasic neuromuscular paralysis, which is symmetric and ascending in progression.

If the paralysis reaches the respiratory muscles, GBS can progress into respiratory failure, which requires prolonged hospitalization. Management is mostly supportive and may require either plasma exchange or IV immunoglobulin. Ataxia-telangiectasia, also known as Louis-Bar syndrome, is a neurocutaneous syndrome, which involves multiple systems but mainly affects the neurological system.

Ataxia-telangiectasia presents with progressive ataxia, telangiectasias, extrapyramidal symptoms, dermatological manifestations, immune dysfunction, and progressive pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed with neuroimaging and genetic testing. Management is supportive with symptom management. Prognosis is poor secondary to numerous complications. Sympathomimetic Drugs. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate.

Clinical uses of sympathomimetics include the treatment of hypotension, asthma, and anaphylaxis. The primary drugs used as IV vasopressors in the hospital are dopamine and norepinephrine. Dobutamine is given IV as an inotrope. Albuterol is used via nebulizer or metered-dose inhaler for asthma.

Sympathomimetics may produce a wide range of adverse effects, which generally resemble excessive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Neurofibromatosis Type 2. Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a neurocutaneous disorder that can arise from mutations in the NF2 gene located in chromosome 22 and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion or occur from de novo mutations. Other features can include eye lesions such as cataracts, skin lesions, and peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis is made clinically from history and examination and confirmed with MRI, molecular testing, and histopathology.

Tumor surveillance and follow-up with screening of at-risk family members is recommended. Stimulants are used by the general public to increase alertness and energy, decrease fatigue, and promote mental focus. Stimulants have medical uses for individuals with ADHD and sleep disorders, and are also used in combination with analgesics in pain management.

Stimulants are used in beverages and as over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and drugs of abuse. Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used psychostimulants. This volume in the popular Pocket Notebook series provides a concise and focused review of the entire field of emergency medicine — from history and physical exam to differential diagnosis testing to therapeutics to disposition — all in one easy-to-navigate looseleaf notebook.

In this part of the article, you will be able to access the. Download File. You may send an email to admin cmecde. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Been Medical Video Lectures Dr. Tuesday, June 28, Sign in.

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Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on the integral diagnosis and management of illnesses that affect newborns, infants, young children, preteens, and adolescents until the age of 18 years.

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Doktorka na selu torrentz Good explanation of the questions to ask to the parents. The apophysis is also the site of ligament or tendon insertion and is involved in the peripheral growth of the bone. Nephrology is a topic that is often obscured by the teachers in this field I met. The reaction involves T cells, not antibodies, and develops over several days. Thumbs up! Monitoring for, and treating, superinfection is essential source to the high risk of associated death in these patients. The condition usually occurs concurrently with inflammation of the nasal mucosa rhinitisa condition known as rhinosinusitis.
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