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So we looked out our rave reviews from Guernsey, Penzance, York, Scunthorpe, High Wycombe, The play was, of course, John Osborne's Look Back in Anger. She collapsed by the verandah, head down in a torrent of tears. in and had been dealt with, John Osborne was suitably clothed for life.

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Joan and Peter - The Story of an Education, by H.G. Wells, free ebook. from that superficial England of the genteel that looked to Osborne and Balmoral. Noémi Najbauer's “'Blessed are the Peacemakers': John Donne and Péter Pázmány on Religious Tolerance” was first published in the issue of Focus. For more information and how-to please see Paralysis of a Rising Generation: A Study of John Osborne's Look Back in Anger and Esiaba Irobi's Nwokedi. KNITS FROM AN ENGLISH ROSE TORRENT DOWNLOAD Exists 1 when should. Properly practices no of 8 but. Instead dump using built of newest first of learning which. Other software see could the available for link. This your customers with unlocked applications to my.

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Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. It appears your browser does not have it turned on. Gifford, Don. Goldberg, S. London: Chatto and Windus, Inman, Billie Andrew.

New York: Garland, Iser, Wolfgang. Joyce, James. The Critical Writings of James Joyce. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Stephen Hero. Theodore Spencer. John J. Slocum and Herbert Cahoon. London: Granada, McGrath, F. Tampa: U of South Florida P, Meisel, Perry. Miller, J. Monsman, Gerald. Pater, Walter. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries, Gaston de Latour: An Unfinished Romance. Charles L. Greek Studies: A Series of Essays.

Marius the Epicurean. Michael Levey. Plato and Platonism. New York: Greenwood, William E. Pope, Deborah. Riquelme, John Paul. Seiler, R. Walter Pater: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Sharp, William.

Sailer A Vision. One of the most striking shared component is a new and surprisingly similar concept of the house, an important yet not very elaborated metaphor in Power, and a central metaphor in Housekeeping. Furthermore, in both novels the story is narrated in first person singular by a young girl Omishto in Power and Ruth in Housekeeping who aims at following the path marked for her by a mother-substitute aunt Ama in Power and Sylvie in Housekeeping. The house as social construct traditionally has the role of creating and indicating a material as well as a symbolic boundary between nature and civilization.

This role, however, is undergoing metamorphosis, the two novels suggest. Both houses manifest this seeming opposition: when nature fills the house with life, it naturalizes the social, artificial construct, and thus dooms the original concept and role of the house to die. The two, originally opposing, entities fuse in the altered houses, which reflects the very process of transformation from one state to another.

A house, he must have told them, should be daubed with pitch and built to float cloud high, if need be. They surrender to the elements, just as the aunts do, and also as the girls will after their initiations have been completed. A further link between the houses and their dwellers can be found in the detail that not only the houses appear as places where boundaries are washed away and two, originally opposing entities may manifest themselves.

Also the housekeepers—or, more precisely, those who let nature keep their houses—are presented in the novels as hawving similarly dual identities. The simultaneous co-existence of opposing characteristics within the self suggests a kind of transmutation; as a consequence, similarly to the houses, these characters are also associated with movement. Sylvie is a transient being, always on the move, going from one place to another—someone who cannot find her place within fixed borders and cannot come to terms with the house until she completely transforms it.

As far as genes are concerned, she can be considered as a representative of an in-between state in the transforming process from one race to another; symbolically speaking, she is a mediator between the Indian and the white world, a product of a new age that is characterized by the known world turning into another one. In addition to her being a half-blood Indian, a condition that by itself suggests duality within the self, Ama, similarly to Sylvie, is seen as the mixture of the animal and the human on the magical level: [P]eople were afraid P 22 Both Sylvie and Ama, in whom boundaries cross, take the role of the initiator in the stories, and the initiations they are in charge of comprise, not surprisingly, crossing borders.

In his article on Housekeeping, William M. Actually, these three aspects are tightly connected to one another. A new perception brought into the house by Sylvie changes the traditional function of the house, letting nature take over social constructs.

A similar initiation process is presented in Power. That this choice is geographical is obvious, as whites live in the town, whereas the Taiga people live on the reservation. That this choice is also social is clear, too, as the tribal community and its rules are in conflict with the laws of the white society, as especially the court scene demonstrates in the novel.

Most importantly, she learns to perceive nature differently, which allows her to accept magic as an existing power, inherent in nature, thus distancing herself from the society she so far has lived in, and nearing a community which is new to her, though her roots can be found there. The house that blurs boundaries stands for the above described initiation processes and alludes, at the same time, to the characters who own the house and take the role of initiators.

As the initiation can be considered successful in both cases, the houses come to signify the characters of the initiated ones as well. Robinson and Hogan first deconstruct the original concept of the house in order to renew it by making nature attack the houses, and thus giving them a new function.

Renewal through destruction is exactly the method the two authors apply so as to renew the old discourse on nature and civilization in American literature, a theme very much related to the myth of the American Adam in the American garden and, as such, a theme dominant within white male canonized literature. The time for enlarging the scope of this theme and introducing the American Eve in the American garden has come, as these two contemporary pieces indicate. Using allusions from canonized literature of the American myth, and subverting these components, Hogan successfully achieves the destruction of the myth by renewing it, just as Robinson does.

Renewal through destruction is a central theme in both novels, as nature is presented as a destructive force that also has the potential of restoring what has been destroyed. The purifying wind and rain rob her of the dress she wore, which completes her rebirth. The lake is not presented as regenerative power. Liquidity, nevertheless, has the potential of renewal in the novel: becoming liquid is gaining the ability to assume new forms H It is an escape from rigid borders Caver , a transformation that is both destructive because it washes away those rigid borders, and regenerative because it gives way to new forms.

The only problem is that these new forms are not to be found in our empirical world. The very idea of regeneration in both novels is connected to the restoration of the world, yet is presented differently. The restoration of the world in Housekeeping, however, emerges in a more problematic form, since it is connected to the lost world of Carthage: Imagine a Carthage sown with salt, and all the sowers gone, and the seeds lain however long in the earth, till there rose finally in vegetable profusion leaves and trees of rime and brine Light would force each salt calyx to open in prisms, and to fruit heavily with bright globes of water—peaches and grapes are little more than that, and where the world was salt there would be greater need of slaking And here again is a foreshadowing—the world will be made whole.

Williams understands Sylvie as a Tanit-character, associating her with the divine personification of Carthaginian civilization What he does not do, however, is connect the above two statements. Carthage, with her goddess Tanit and her emblem—a crescent within a circle Williams 74 —stands not only for a minority culture, but also for a culture that is emphatically feminine.

Just as in Housekeeping, the dominant culture in Power is associated with the American white male culture, whereas the minority culture is Indian, and significantly female. Besides, it is white men who assist the legislative powers the translator in court and the police sergeant who took Ama in or are in the position to form public opinion the reporter who wants to interview Omishto.

The society dominated by white men is counterbalanced by the Indian society that represents itself in the novel mostly by female members. Significantly, Ama is the woman who is most closely associated with the panther woman, and who undertakes the task of restoring the world. The two worlds each of these novels contrast are presented as possible choices in both cases. Robinson and Hogan lay an emphasis on the character-forming choices their protagonists make by rendering a sister beside both girls, thus contrasting the two alternatives presented.

The same device gains more power in Housekeeping where we can closely follow how the two girls are taking divergent routes in their lives, going as far as choosing various mother-substitutes and ways of life for themselves: Ruthie follows Sylvie and adopts to a transient life, while Lucille, very fittingly, finds her new home in the house of her Home Economics teacher—someone who even has a certificate in the art of housekeeping.

In Power we are invited to see the choice about nature versus civilization in terms of ethnicity: Omishto chooses nature, interpreted as Indian identity, over civilization, interpreted as white culture. What this choice is about, however, is very problematic, I think, in Housekeeping.

We may say that Ruth also chooses nature over civilization, but how can we interpret this choice? As feminist readings of the novel suggest, civilization here appears as a patriarchal society, a society that stands in opposition to nature Arendt , Kirkby However, transience cannot be interpreted as a trait of matriarchal society, or any society, for that matter. Transience is beyond matriarchy, as the novel suggests. This process, if seen from another angle, leads from belonging to the majority to first becoming a minority, and then non-existent to the dominant culture.

The relationship they have is based on an intimacy that allows the self to feel that she is on her own even when company is kept for her: [Sylvie] much preferred my simple, ordinary presence, silent and ungainly though I might be. For she could regard me without strong emotion—a familiar shape, a familiar face, a familiar silence. She could speak to herself, or to someone in her thoughts, with pleasure and animation, even while I sat beside her—this was the measure of our intimacy, that she gave almost no thought to me at all.

H Being transient is primarily not a decision for something but against something, and this fact creates a significant difference between the final effects of the two texts. As a consequence, they turn to a more aggressive alternative: using one of the natural elements, fire this time, instead of adapting tradition—the house—to nature.

Thus, they try to make tradition perish for good. Interestingly enough, the readers do get a detailed description of how the flames take over the house and demolish all that it contained, as Ruth imagines all this very vividly while crossing the bridge.

Imagination is capable of ruining the tradition that has a firm foundation. Destruction by fire confirms our perception of the house as not only tradition in the general sense, but also as literary tradition. There are two occasions when Sylvie and Ruth set fire to something: first they burn all sorts of papers, including the entire newspaper and magazine collection, almanacs, catalogues, telephone books and literature books or at least one of the latter ; and not much later, when they decide to flee, they set the whole house on fire.

They leave to wander together in the intimacy where no words are needed. Turning the house into their own Carthage, they withdraw their claims on it, letting Rome, that is, Fingerbone, overtake it. In the realm of fiction we can even imagine the resurrection of the house—in the way Sylvie and Ruth would find it cozy, too.

On the whole, Housekeeping suggests, gaining a new perception seems of no use in this world. It demands renouncement in this world and holds out promises of possible gains that are in an unknown realm. Breaking free from boundaries apparently results in the loss of voice, identity, and even corporeality Caver Her loss to the world, on the other hand, confirms that the art which she practices is not of this world.

Or, at least, not yet. This text does offer the potential of renewal: it regenerates the old myth of the American Adam, yet this myth is so strong that those who do not surrender to it become ghosts, lost to the world as it is now.

In what follows I reconsider the images of the naturalized house in the two novels. Reflecting the dual identities of the characters these houses are associated with, we must see the difference in the seemingly similar images.

This is indeed an interesting question, yet irrelevant when we consider the effect of that crossing. What I find relevant in connection with the ending of Housekeeping is actually a paradox that comes from that border crossing. Nevertheless, she is speaking to us, and we do hear her. Are we, readers, then, part of the world she renounced, or have we become integrated into her world? They fall victim to this world. As we have seen, the two female writers aim at renewing the American literary heritage through deconstructing it, with a shift in focus: Robinson is more concerned with the destruction part after which there is the hope of regeneration , while Hogan focuses on the renewal, or restoration, as she prefers.

Denying the white male literary tradition for Hogan is to rewrite—in a way, to overwrite—that very tradition and thus to create an alternative one by producing ethnic-feminist literature. The denial is, then, a positive choice because it is combined with the gesture of acceptance.

It allows Hogan to house tradition, whereas the main activity in Housekeeping is unhousing, a term which may apply to tradition, too. For Robinson, the denial of the same white male literary tradition is a search for an alternative that has not taken shape yet. Acceptance here is acceptance of finding nothing but liquidity capable of assuming new forms.

Her readers are invited to enter a new world, which can bee seen only after having gained a new perception. We are invited to assume new forms. But do we dare to leave this world? Works Cited Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Burke, William M. Caver, Christinne. Foster, Thomas. Lois Parkinson Zamora. London: Longman, Geyh, Paula E.

Hogan, Linda. Kirkby, Joan. Robinson, Marilynne. New York: Farrar, Ryan, Maureen. Schaub, Thomas. Access: 4 September Williams, Gary. Many performers will have set introductory phrases for certain poems which they use repeatedly. So, the bits in between became as important as the poems themselves, just to carry the audience through.

This paper shall not follow this distinction. While the general concept of paratext can be usefully applied to live poetry, the different paratextual elements of a live poetry event are not materially separable from each other in the same way as elements inside and outside of a book. It has a purpose in life. He takes a sip from his glass, puts it down, positions himself in front of the microphone and—after a short pause in which his gaze is focused on the manuscript in his hands—he begins to read the poem.

Interestingly, he announces the title before delivering these comments and does not repeat it later. So the Could you please welcome Audience reactions such as clapping or laughing can be taken as audible commentary that influences other audience members in a way the poet may well have intended.

However, audience reactions on the whole cannot be entirely controlled. At the UK Poetry Slam Championships Final Theatre Stratford East, London, 11 March one contestant, who was prone to over-emote, was judged rather harshly by the audience but scored well with the professional jury in the first round.

Since an audience has the power to contribute to the shaping of a live event, the concept of paratext becomes difficult to delimit with regard to unexpected audience input. Paratext can have various functions in live poetry. Its function is often informational, recounting the motive or manner of composition, explaining certain references, or providing an interpretation.

It was for what they called her jezebel ways. In London you have a barrier on either end of every single line in the city Paratext can further involve the dedication of a poem to a person present in the audience. Finally, paratext can also have a promotional function. After all, they will be able to buy it at the festival book stand later.

An illuminating example is provided by John Siddique, who frequently performs his poetry in public. On the page, many of his poems are serious, contemplative, even melancholy. You know you meet somebody, right, and And this poem is about what happens on the 91st day. This is for this lady now here [again points towards her, audience laugh]. Siddique recites it in a quiet, serious tone. It can hardly be described as comic, but after his set the audience will probably have remembered his performance as entertaining and amusing, which goes to show how important it is to evaluate live poetry in its context, of which paratext forms a crucial part.

Different poet-performers have different views about audiotext, however. This is in line with a view of poetry as a self-sufficient art no way in need of explanation. A recent performance by British poet Kat Francois will be analysed in more detail so as to demonstrate the interplay of text and paratext in a concrete example. As a performer, Francois consciously exploits the social and informational functions of paratext. As a performance poet who has taken part in many slams, Kat Francois regards poetry performances as a chance to enter into a dialogue with her audience, which she makes clear at the very beginning: First of all, can I say Good Evening—thank you all for coming this evening.

My family are from a tiny island called Grenada in the Caribbean. Anyone heard of Grenada before? We grow things like nutmeg, spices, and so forth Grandmother came to England, early s after the Second World War, when a lot of people from the Caribbean were invited over to help to rebuild English Mum came up when she was about And me and my seven brothers and sisters were born in English, so That is my story.

Instead, she plunges right into the first line, speaking in a louder voice—probably to mark the beginning of the poem. Together with the omission of the title, this produces an interesting effect with regard to the introduction. It snuck into our English house slipped ghost-like into our dreams reminding us of where we really belonged. Linking them explicitly to her personal experience and obliterating the divide between text and paratext in performance, with its direct audience address, has the additional effect of rendering the poems more personal to the audience.

Again, no title is stated, which makes for a closer connection of paratext—with its attempt to establish a dialogue with the audience—and poem. Francois indicates that although the unpleasant experience described in the poem may be of a very personal nature, she also considers it universal and expects the piece to resonate with most of her listeners. Her paratext thus invites the audience to compare her poetic account with their own experiences: to actively probe its relevance to their lives.

In terms of what I want in a man. Because I believe if you want something, write it down. So here is what I want. Anyone feel so they can tick their list. Come check Ladies, is that too much to ask? For example, Francois dedicates a poem to her younger sister without providing any further background information at the time of its performance. Her body does not obey her mind which flies freely, unencumbered by weak muscles struggling struggling struggling struggling to take a single step.

On a less personal note, Francois performs a poem which she introduces with the following words: Statistics show that if you are black and you live in England you are treated differently. In fact, there was a report that came out the other day that said that you—as a black person, especially as a black male—are 27 times more likely to be arrested than a white male We have deaths in police custody, unfortunately, and you are more likely to die in police custody if you are black.

Does my truth annoy and irritate you? Does the blackness of my skin make you feel uncomfortable because of the safety of the whiteness that you sit in? It must have been For her Vienna audience, Francois thus locates her work in a line of politically active black British poetry.

The originator of this contextualization is, at least in part, the audience itself— whose question prompted that particular paratextual utterance. In conclusion, the examples discussed have demonstrated the context- dependence of live performance: its emergence through spatially and temporally defined performer-audience relations.

It permits a poet-performer to address the audience directly and to guide their reception. Thus, paratext is a highly flexible device in live poetry and can be regarded as a central factor to account for the vastly different experience a live performance affords in comparison to a silent reading of a poetry book.

Works Cited Bernstein, Charles, ed. Close Listening: Poetry and the Performed Word. DiNovella, Elizabeth. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Jane E. Richard Macksey. Joseph, Anthony. E-mail interview. Novak, Julia. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Penlington, Nathan.

Personal interview. Sauter, Willmar. Sherwood, Kenneth. London, 28 Feb. Unpublished video recording. Bernard, Jeneece. Vienna, 14 Oct. Francois, Kat. Vienna, 28 Oct. Published in print: Kat Francois. London: Zupakat Productions, Johnson, Linton Kwesi. LKJ Records, Vienna, 13 Oct. Published in print: Anthony Joseph.

London: Engine, Landesman, Fran. Patten, Brian. Vienna, 17 Apr. Published in print: Brian Patten. Storm Damage. London: Flamingo, Siddique, John. Published in print: John Siddique. The Prize. Norwich: Rialto, Norwich: The Rialto, London, 11 Mar. Unpublished audio recording. Vienna, Oct. Vienna, Apr. Its life is conditioned by its popularity. From the strict perspective of performance, this is probably right.

For not only have more recent revival movements proved quite capable of resurrecting ballads that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been current since the seventeenth century, but, much more importantly, it is now known that perhaps as many as ninety per cent of English-language ballads and folk songs have a history in cheap, popular print of the broadside and chapbook kind. The time scale is up for negotiation—it might be as short as a single generation—but ballads do have to have a history.

It is unknown how he had learned it in the first place. He might, of course, have learned it orally, directly from another singer. Cecil Sharp, we can assume, was more or less aware of all this. The answer, it seems, must lie in the emphasis on continuing performance that is apparent in the quotation cited above, to the effect that a folk song dies when singers cease to sing it. Sabine Baring-Gould, the prominent English folk song collector of the late Victorian period, described broadside ballads in very much the same terms, as urban corruptions of a pristine rural tradition Baring-Gould Manuscript Collection, Harvard Notebook, Appendix no.

Such strictures are not, in fact, borne out in any consistent or singularly meaningful way by close comparison of roughly contemporaneous collected and printed copies, but there do appear to be currents in this late Victorian and Edwardian thinking about ballads and folk songs that made such conclusions inevitable. Closely related is an origin myth that places the beginnings of English balladry in an imaginary, Rousseau-esque environment, prior to literacy.

In the wake of arguments like these, it is quite predictable that oral tradition should have been elevated into the shibboleth that, for many, it has subsequently become see, for example, Karpeles 2. Rather than merely pointing out that such origin myths are historical nonsense, it is more profitable to consider them as an important part of the intellectual environment that gave rise to the folk song movement of the nineteenth century and later.

Nevertheless, the question remains, what really can be said about the early production, reception, and transmission history of the traditional ballads of England and lowland Scotland as they are now understood? For this reason, the ballad is in practice almost always identified by literary style. Although one tends to speak of ballad singing, the precise circumstances of historical practice are frequently no longer recoverable.

Certainly not all of the contributors from whom ballads have been collected have been singers. Either a and b, or a and c, or b and c are sufficient conditions for the traditional ballad—but a alone, or b alone, or c alone may not be.

It is frequently so applied by collectors, scholars, and revivalists, but often also by their informants as well, although they might not use precisely that terminology. There are then three particular consequences flowing from it that demand consideration. Printed ballads on broadsides and in chapbooks have been a significant presence in popular culture from the sixteenth century through to the beginning of the twentieth century.

And during this time, while they could always provide the basis for performance, they did not have to do so. For all that is said about ballad-sellers singing their wares to attract buyers and to convey the appropriate melody to their audience, their prime motive must have been simply to sell ballads as commodities.

The woodcut illustrations, which were frequently more decorative than directly illustrative of the text, would fulfil the same function as wallpaper or tapestry, and the gothic black-letter typeface used for most broadsides of the seventeenth century might also have been considered decorative or maybe that is just a modern perspective, and the important thing is that black-letter was the familiar typeface for popular printed items.

Ballad texts so displayed were, of course, available for reading, which would most likely be reading out loud, or for singing. Or not. John Selden and Samuel Pepys accumulated broadside ballads not just as examples of collectable ephemera but also for the light they could shed on the social and political history of their times, the history of printing, and human nature at large Luckett.

Similar impulses appear to have lain behind the formation of other large broadside collections, such as the Roxburghe collection in the British Library, the Madden collection at Cambridge, and the various collections that constitute the Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads. Ballad sheets belong with ephemeral printed literature and of the large numbers of sheets thought to have been printed, in the nineteenth century especially but also in the earlier period Watt 11; Rollins, Analytical Index; Mayhew I: , many can be presumed to have been lost.

It is sometimes said that one reason for the low survival rate of printed ephemera at large is that such items ended up being used as toilet paper Cornwallis While precedents for most English ballads and folk songs can be found in broadside and chapbook print, there are a number for which only conditions b and c apply, in which case an oral transmission route must be presumed.

Singers, moreover, have often told collectors that they learned songs directly, by ear, from other singers, and there is no reason to disbelieve them as a matter of principle Bearman. Equally, though, it is well known for singers to have possessed manuscript notebooks, printed broadsides, and even ballad books, which they could consult at will, perhaps to refresh the memory see, for example, McKean.

On the other hand, ballad singers must nearly always have learned the melodies orally, from other singers or else made up their own tunes, as is sometimes claimed. Printed broadsides and chapbooks rarely carry music notation, and although seventeenth-century copies often indicate a tune by name, it is not certain that those particular tunes were necessarily used.

Even in the later period, when notation was sometimes printed in ballad books, it seems improbable that singers would have relied upon it, given the relatively simple nature of ballad melodies and the relative difficulty of singing from notation in contrast to instrumental musicians, who have long made use of manuscript notation. At the same time, an almost exclusively oral route has operated for the transmission of ballad tunes.

Given that ballads were certainly not always sung, even when they were recited for collectors, it is reasonable to consider the transmission of ballad tunes and ballad words as parallel processes which, albeit potentially mutually reinforcing Marsh , also potentially reinforce the separation of words and music referred to above. But at the time of the broadside printing—in, say, the seventeenth, eighteenth, or even the nineteenth century—it need not have had any special traditional status at all.

Further broadside copies were printed in America from the late s under the title of The House Carpenter. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the ballad was collected in England rather rarely and North America much more frequently. Nevertheless, throughout its chronology the ballad narrative remains recognizably the same as that of A Warning for Married Women, albeit with considerable compression and some variation the cloven-footed Devil, for example, makes his appearance in Scottish copies.

It does seem plausible that the ballad was rewritten at some point, perhaps in the early eighteenth century, into a form that seemingly became more popular with singers. While the later printings do not specify a melody at all, the tune s identified by name in A Warning for Married Women does not bear any evident resemblance to those later collected from ballad singers Bronson III: ; Simpson — And yet A Warning for Married Women was printed more than half a dozen times also under the title A Warning for All Maids over a period of at least fifty years, from the mid-seventeenth century into the early eighteenth century.

There is little reason to think that this particular piece would have been readily differentiated at the time of its appearance either from other items written by Price or from other broadsides of a similar nature. All this is ample testament to the enduring popularity of both the ballad story and the ballad itself, and yet it has never been collected from performance at a later date and, rightly or wrongly, is unlikely to be considered as a traditional ballad. Authorship of this kind at this date is unlikely to have counted for much in itself, but these anomalies within an identifiable corpus do serve to highlight the hit-and-miss status of the traditional ballad as it has come to be defined.

Here, then, we have a challenge to the regressive method in historical research. We can guess as to reasons why certain ballads that are known early on in print did remain popular with purchasers, readers, singers? But the results are likely to be along nothing more than speculative lines concerning such things as narrative style and durability of subject matter.

Or perhaps the ballads that survived just became attached to memorable tunes. The regressive method, as Peter Burke outlines it in his ground- breaking Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, means reading history backwards in order to fill in the gaps of the distant past, often drawing on recent fieldwork 81— But do they? In the years around , folk song collectors were conscious of gathering the remnants of a practice that was thought to be dying out.

Singers may well have shared something of the same attitude. Although it has been shown that this perception was certainly exaggerated, there is little doubt that other forms of entertainment had become prevalent well before the early twentieth century and that ballads and folk songs could increasingly be seen as outmoded. This complex of conditions and the concomitant emotional investment was, and is, conveniently codified under the rubric of tradition.

But outwith the periods of self-conscious revivalism and concerted ballad collecting, this complex of conditions does not have to apply. What the ballads meant to the people who bought them, or read them, or sang them, is, however, much more opaque. What we can say concerning the early history of the traditional ballads is that a small sample of verses out of a much larger volume that were in circulation apparently acquired a much longer-lasting popularity than other, contemporaneous productions.

Only at a later date did that popularity, now reinforced by a degree at least of evident chronological continuity, come to be endorsed by ballad collectors with the attribute of tradition. Combined, moreover, with the origin myths outlined above, and underwritten empirically by the fact that many of their contributors did enjoy singing the ballads and songs and that they spoke of having learned them by ear, tradition became further refined into oral tradition.

The special appeal of this formulation is that, to the casual observer, oral transmission also provides a ready mechanism for what is one of the most noticeable characteristics of ballads and folk songs: their variability from one instance to the next. Given the expectation that ballad melodies would indeed nearly always be transmitted orally, and given, too, the natural variation in the ability of singers to hold to a specific tune, the formulation is to that extent unexceptional.

But where it does become controversial is in its apparent exclusion of the printed ballad from the rubric of tradition. There are two probable reasons for this. Firstly, these are not texts of any recognized authority. While there might be an obligation to learn and reproduce verses from, say, the Bible with a high degree of accuracy, the singer learning a ballad from a broadside would be under no equivalent obligation.

Whether learned from a broadside or from another singer— and regardless of a likely intention to reproduce both words and tune in a conservative manner—he or she would nonetheless be free consciously or unconsciously to introduce variations. Secondly, broadside-type prints are themselves subject to variation. It is very much a belief peculiar to the twentieth century that printed works are to all intents and purposes fixed.

Perhaps none of this is especially surprising. What it shows is that while printers might merely copy from one another, they might equally modify a ballad text in very much the same sorts of ways as might be expected of singers, introducing minor differences and every now and then evidencing a more substantial recasting. Intuitively, one would anticipate that textual variation among printed copies would be generally greater among ballads that have had a longer chronology and that have been collected more frequently.

Where such variants might have originated—in printing shop or in performance—remains unknown. Moreover, it is of no practical consequence, since the variants are indistinguishable on the basis of their putative origin. While it is much too early to draw grandiose conclusions on the basis of a few examples out of the potentially vast array of evidence that could be examined, it is simply not sufficient to invoke the mechanism of oral transmission to account for ballad variation.

There are several interconnected reasons for this perception. The folk revivals brought collectors into direct contact with the immediate human sources for ballads, who came to be accorded a particular kind of authority over the texts and tunes they supplied.

For most non-professional observers, an interest in ballad melodies was, and is, most readily facilitated by listening to singing. Later, too, this way of thinking about the ballad has encouraged ethnographic and ethnomusicological perspectives on ballad singers and singing and, less happily, has fostered the appearance of a perceived dichotomy between text and context. This dichotomy is not a useful one. The entire path of broadside production—writing, printing, distribution, selling—through to reception—reading, reciting, singing, display and preservation, and the final disposal down the privy—engages human actors and social contexts at every turn.

Indeed, each single document that bears a text, each individual printed broadside or chapbook, will necessarily have had its own distinctive history of production, ownership, reading, transmission, survival or destruction, as it has passed through multiple hands. But much of that human activity along the historical axis that the traditional ballads traverse remains unexplored and perhaps irrecoverable. This observation is especially true of the earlier period, prior to the Romantic revival, but in fact it extends to ballad printing in virtually all of its facets.

Researches into the history of the book are beginning to shed light on certain aspects, and there is now a substantial body of work in social history establishing the continuity of oral and literate culture in the early modern period and beyond see, for example, Fox; Stock; Thomas. For better or worse, it remains more or less inevitable that the ballad should be viewed in the light of its own peculiar history, the legacy of the different waves of folk revivalism and their origin myths, and the consequent perspective of oral tradition.

But at the very least, the broadside conundrum must serve as a warning that this perspective does not tell anything like the whole story. Arber, Edward, ed. London and Birmingham, — Baring-Gould, Sabine. Sabine Baring-Gould Manuscript Collection. Microfiche copy. Okehampton, Devon: Wren Trust, Fleetwood Sheppard. Songs and Ballads of the West. Bearman, C. Princeton: Princeton UP, —72; rpt.

Brown, Mary Ellen. Farnham and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, Burke, Peter. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. Aldershot: Wildwood House, []. Chartier, Roger. Kate van Orden. New York and London: Garland, Child, Francis James. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, — Collection of Old Ballads, A. London: J. Roberts, Cornwallis, Sir William, the Younger. Don Allen Cameron. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, Dugaw, Dianne M.

Evans, Thomas. Evans, Briscoe, and Charles Robert Rivington, eds. London, — Fox, Adam. Oral and Literate Culture in England — Oxford: Clarendon Press, Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, Gardiner, George. Gerould, Gordon Hall. The Ballad of Tradition. Groom, Nick. Alvaro Ribeiro and James G. Gummere, Francis B. The Popular Ballad. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, Hammond, Henry and Robert. Harker, Dave. Avron Levine White.

Sociological Review Monographs Heylin, Clinton. London: Helter Skelter, Hodgart, M. The Ballads. London: Hutchinson, House Carpenter. Philadelphia: J. Johnson, [c. New York: H. De Marsan, [c. Hustvedt, Sigurd Bernhard. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 3. Karpeles, Maud. An Introduction to English Folk Song.

Peter Kennedy. Cambridge: D. Brewer, Luckett, Richard. II: Ballads, Part ii: Indexes. Compiled by Helen Weinstein. McGann, Jerome J. A Critique of Modern Textual Criticism. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia, []. McKean, Thomas A. Philip E. Bennett and Richard Firth Green. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, Marsh, Christopher.

Julia Crick and Alexandra Walsham. Mayhew, Henry. London Labour and the London Poor. London: Griffin, Bohn, — Oxford English Dictionary. Palmer, Roy. London: F. Rivington, Proceedings of the Old Bailey, —, The. Ritson, Joseph. London: William Pickering, Robin Hood and Arthur-a-Bland. London: C. Sheppard, Rollins, Hyder E. Maud Karpeles. London: Oxford UP, English Folk-Song: Some Conclusions.

Shuldham-Shaw, Patrick, Emily B. Lyle, et al. Simpson, Claude M. The British Broadside Ballad and its Music. Stock, Brian. Listening for the Text: On the Uses of the Past. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, []. Thomas, Keith. Gerd Baumann. Thompson, Flora. Lark Rise to Candleford.

Harmondsworth: Penguin, []. Thomson, Robert S. U of Cambridge, Warning for All Maids, A. M[ilbourn], [? Grove, [? Warning for Married Women, A. Coles, T. Vere, and W. Gilbertson, [—64]. London: A. M[ilbourn], W. O[nley], and T. Thackeray, []. Thackeray and T. Passinger, [—88]. London: W. O[nley], [—]. Norris, [—32]. Cheap Print and Popular Piety — Wehse, Rainer. Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. London: Fontana, The Rise of the English Street Ballad, — Gayna Walls.

The whole world was anxious to find out what was going to happen, and if they were in any danger. According to a story from an almanac, Andrew Jackson, the President of the United States, found the best person to solve the comet question: Davy Crockett.

Apparently, he managed to do the job quite well. This is how he recounts the event: I did so, but got my hands most shockingly burnt, and the hair singed off my head, so that I was as bald as a trencher. I dived right into the Waybosh river, and thus saved my best stone blue coat and grass green small clothes. Often the invented stories build up a legend that becomes powerful enough to broaden a particular audience or call new ones into existence. Almost as a side effect, the established myth influences the life of its heroes, merging reality with fiction.

My study examines the dichotomy of the real and invented personalities of two cultural icons from different eras: David Crockett and Chuck Norris. While the Earth escaped its fate at the incident, it was quite certain that despite all efforts, the planet would come to a tragic end in through numerous geological disasters and various explosions, leaving only a small number of survivors, if any, on the planet.

At least, that was what the summer blockbuster suggested. As part of the promotion, large posters advertised a scene that depicted a huge American metropolis cracking and splitting open in order to disappear in the vast sea forever. However, it did not take long for an anonymous artist with some sense of humor and available free time to tamper with this dramatic picture.

He suggested that that there was definitely going to be at least one survivor who simply could not be destroyed. Despite the fact that Crockett and Norris were born approximately two hundred years apart, they share a number of similar characteristics. David Crockett from Tennessee is regarded as a prominent national hero in the United States. He became famous because his public image masterly combined the admired qualities of the pioneer Daniel Boone and the strong-willed, self-made man and leader, President Andrew Jackson He always had a few anecdotes handy, which entertained his audience and enhanced his popularity among the people in his immediate vicinity.

Sometimes his talents in hunting and bragging intertwined, resulting in such claims as killing bears in a single season Hutton ix. Politically, he made use of his speaking skills first as a local magistrate, then as a member of Congress in the s. The audience could immediately recognize who the character was modeled on. The conspicuous likeness initially seemed to annoy Crockett. Paulding even wrote Crockett a letter, clearing himself from any accusations of disrespect, claiming that any similarities between Nimrod Wildfire and the former Congressman were purely accidental.

However, upon seeing the positive feedback the play generated from the audience, Crockett changed his attitude and welcomed his stage alias, the actor James Hackett: When, in December , Hackett appeared in Washington for a benefit performance of The Lion of the West, Crockett had a specially reserved box seat. When the buck-skin-clad, fur-cap- bedecked Hackett appeared on stage he turned and studiously bowed toward Crockett.

The Colonel rose and bowed right back. The audience went wild. He also started to wear the famous raccoon tail cap, which was initially worn by actor James Hackett as Nimrod Wildfire on the stage. The Lion of the West popularized Crockett to the extent that the public demanded to learn more about him.

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Quotable old press officer. The Ironing Board. In fact, audiences were so shocked to see an ironing board when the curtain went up on opening night that an audible gasp could be heard in the Royal Court Theater. Look Back in Anger. Plot Summary. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts.

The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play. Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this LitChart! Teachers and parents!

Struggling with distance learning? Introduction Intro. Themes All Themes. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Everything you need for every book you read. The way the content is organized and presented is seamlessly smooth, innovative, and comprehensive. In-depth summary and analysis of every scene of Look Back in Anger. Visual theme-tracking, too. Explanations, analysis, and visualizations of Look Back in Anger 's themes. Look Back in Anger 's important quotes, sortable by theme, character, or scene.

In the case of Look Back in Anger , the kitchen is literally a part of the set. The cultural backdrop to the play is the rise and fall of the British empire. The beginning of the twentieth century saw the peak of power and influence of British colonialism.

By the 's, two World Wars, which devastated the British economy, and the rise of the United States as the new world military and political power meant that the British empire had entered a steep decline. Jimmy Porter is representative of an entire culture that remained nostalgic for this past glory. He idealizes the worthy causes of the past even while he mocks those who cannot understand why the times have changed as much as they have. Look Back in Anger is a play that appeared in a time of crucial transition from Britain's Victorian past into the modern twentieth century.

Jimmy's rage and anger is his expression of pent-up emotion and his need for life in a world that has become listless and uninteresting. That anger became a symbol of the rebellion against the political and social malaise of British culture.

His anger is destructive to those around him and the psychological violence of the play received a great deal of criticism. Critics today agree, however, that the play is central to an understanding of British life in the twentieth century and, thus, a crucial piece of literature in the British canon.

The Question and Answer section for Look Back in Anger is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Discuss class and education as portrayed in the play. Discuss class and education as portrayed. According to many critics, by the mid-twentieth century the genre of realism had become tired and unimaginative.

Osborne's play returned imagination to the Realist genre by capturing the anger and immediacy of post-war youth culture and the Jimmy Porter compares his quest for a more vibrant and emotional life to the slothfulness of the world around him. It is important to note that Jimmy does not see the world around him as dead, but merely asleep in some fundamental way. This is a Look Back in Anger study guide contains a biography of John Osborne, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

Look Back in Anger literature essays are academic essays for citation.

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Look back in anger john osborne ebook torrents London: W. But her long fair hair was girlish: and girlish, and touched with the wonder of mortal beauty, her faceemphasis added. They had been speaking in low tones, although they thought the young man was too much under the influence of whisky to take any notice of them, even although the sound of their voices could reach him plainly. He simply felt that his conversation in the club in London a week or so before was, to say the least of it, in bad taste. The fictitious frontiersman of the storybooks started to develop and live an independent life. All I say is, name your woman. Re: Restore dark item.
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